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Kantor BPMS-GTM Mamasa (Foto: Dokumen Interseksi)
Kantor BPMS-GTM Mamasa (Foto: Dokumen Interseksi)

Inspirasi Toleransi dari Mamasa

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IslamLib – Jika anda punya kesempatan melancong ke Sulawesi Barat (Sulbar), rasanya kurang afdol jika tidak menyempatkan diri ke Mamasa, sebuah kota sunyi nan asri yang berada di bagian tenggara Sulawesi Barat. Berbeda dengan empat kabupaten lainnya di Provinsi Sulbar yang umumnya merupakan daerah pantai, Kabupaten Mamasa merupakan daerah pegunungan.

Di sebelah utara, Kabupaten Mamasa berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Mamuju yang merupakan ibukota Provinsi Sulbar. Di selatan, Mamasa berbatasan dengan kabupaten induknya, Polewali Mandar. Sedangkan di sebelah barat ia berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Majene.

Sementara di sebelah timur, Kabupaten Mamasa berbatasan dengan dua kabupaten yang masuk wilayah Sulawesi Selatan (Sulsel): Kabupaten Tanah Toraja dan Kabupaten Pinrang. Posisi geografis Kabupaten Mamasa dapat dilihat pada gambar di bawah ini.

peta

Kabupaten Mamasa dan Provinsi Sulawesi Barat (Foto: www.sulbar.go.id)

Tidak ada data resmi yang dikeluarkan kantor Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Kabupaten Mamasa mengenai komposisi penduduk berdasarkan etnis. Namun demikian, dari sumber informasi yang saya dapatkan, secara etnisitas, Mamasa kini dihuni dua etnis dominan yaitu Toraja dan Mandar.

Selain dua etnis itu banyak juga pendatang dari luar Sulbar, terutama dari suku Bugis, Makassar, dan pendatang dari Jawa. Walaupun sebagian orang Mamasa mengaku berdarah Toraja, tapi mereka cenderung lebih suka mengidentifikasi dirinya sebagai “To Mamasa” atau Orang Mamasa.

Antara Toraja dan Mandar. Sulbar seringkali diidentifikasi sebagai “Provinsi Mandar” karena memang sebagian besar warga Sulbar merupakan suku Mandar. Agak berbeda dengan daerah Sulbar lainnya, secara kultural, masyarakat Mamasa memiliki kedekatan dengan etnis Toraja.

Beberapa ahli budaya mengkategorikan masyarakat Mamasa sebagai bagian dari sub-etnis Toraja. Ada banyak ragam adat-istiadat dan budaya Mamasa yang memiliki kemiripan dengan adat-istiadat dan budaya Toraja. Oleh karena itu, orang Mamasa sering juga disebut sebagai “Tomas” atau Toraja Mamasa.

Orang Mamasa memiliki rumah adat yang disebut “Banua”. Selain berfungsi sebagai rumah tinggal, Banua juga sekaligus berfungsi sebagai “lumbung”, tempat penyimpanan hasil panen. Rumah adat suku Mamasa ini sangat unik, yang menurut mereka menyerupai bentuk kapal, seperti kapal-kapal para nenek moyang mereka ketika berangkat dari negeri asal, menyeberangi laut dan berhenti di daerah ini melalui hulu sungai.

Banua yang merupakan simbol eksistensi suku Mamasa ini memiliki kemiripan dengan rumah adat Toraja. Perbedaannya yaitu rumah adat Toraja memiliki atap kayu dengan bentuk seperti huruf “U”, sementara rumah adat Mamasa memiliki atap kayu yang berat dengan bentuk yang tidak terlalu melengkung.

banua

Banua, Rumah Adat Mamasa (Foto: Dokumen Interseksi)

Dari sisi kepercayaan, seperti halnya orang Toraja, orang Mamasa juga masih ada yang mempraktekkan agama lokal-tradisional leluhur mereka yang disebut  “Mapporondo” atau “Aluk Tomatua”.

Agama tradisional ini hingga kini masih tetap terpelihara dan terus terwariskan dari generasi ke generasi. Selain itu, Mamasa juga terkenal dengan tradisi mayat yang unik, yaitu prosesi penguburan yang membuat “si mayat” bisa berjalan dengan sendirinya menuju kuburan yang telah disiapkan atau sering disebut dengan tradisi Ma’nene. Mayoritas orang Toraja merupakan penganut Kristiani, baik Protestan maupun Katholik. Sementara orang Mandar dan para pendatang dari berbagai etnis lainnya umumnya beragama Islam.

Minggu Pagi Yang Sunyi. Kabupaten Mamasa merupakan salah satu wilayah yang dapat dikategorikan sebagai “daerah agamis”. Nuansa religiusitas-kristiani terasa begitu kental ketika memasuki daerah ini. Gereja-gereja besar menghiasi setiap sudut kota. Sementara gereja-gereja kecil lainnya dapat kita jumpai hampir di setiap dusun.

Gereja dan salib-salib besar di pojok ladang dan sawah menjadi pemandangan lumrah. Suasana religius terutama dapat dirasakan pada setiap minggu pagi. Pasar Mamasa yang relatif sepi akan terasa bertambah sunyi pada saat minggu pagi karena hampir semua pertokoan, kios-kios dan warung semuanya tutup.

Semua warga kota Mamasa seakan larut dalam suasana hening ibadah kebaktian minggu pagi. Semua sudut jalan tampak lenggang, sementara salib-salib ukuran besar tampak pula bertebaran di seluruh penjuru kota menambah kentalnya nuansa religiusitas Mamasa.

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