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(Photo credit: David Evers)
(Photo credit: David Evers)

Yesus dan Kritik Atas Agama

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IslamLib – Semua orang Islam diharuskan mengimani nabi dan rasul yang datang sebelum Islam. Sebab Islam bukanlah agama yang membawa hal baru (QS 46:9). Islam hanya terusan saja dari pesan profetik (kenabian) universal yang sudah ada sebelum kedatangan Muhammad. Umat Islam, karena itu, harus mengimani Isa/Yesus sebagai nabi, rasul, pembawa pesan kebenaran dari Tuhan.

Semua orang Islam tahu itu. Semua orang Islam mengimani Isa/Yesus sebagai salah satu nabi. Tetapi yang kurang digali oleh umat Islam, apakah ajaran kebenaran yang dibawa Isa/Yesus. Umat Islam enggan mengkaji ini. Mungkin karena mereka memiliki anggapan Injil, Kitab Suci agama Kristen itu, mengandung distorsi (tahrif).

Di mana persisnya letak distorsi itu, tak pernah dijelaskan secara terang-benderang, baik di Quran atau di hadis. Tak ada ayat Quran atau hadis yang dengan jelas menunjuk satu-dua ayat dalam Injil yang mengalami distorsi, sehingga bisa dibicarakan dengan mendalam. Bagaimana kita bisa mendiskusikan tuduhan distorsi kalau tak dijelaskan mana ayat dalam Injil yang mengalami distorsi?

Tentu tak mungkin semua hal dalam Injil mengalami distorsi tho?

Saya menduga, apa yang disebut distorsi itu adalah konsepsi ketuhanan Kristen yang oleh Quran dianggap menyimpang dari ajaran seluruh nabi, yaitu monoteisme (tauhid). Jadi, kalau pun kita bisa membenarkan adanya distorsi dalam Kitab Suci Kristen dalam pandangan Islam, kita patut menduga bahwa itu ada pada soal konsepsi trinitas (tathlith).

Bagaimana dengan ajaran kebenaran lain di luar soal trinitas dalam Injil? Umat Islam jarang menanyakan hal ini. Jika umat Islam diharuskan mengimani semua Kitab Suci sebelum Quran sebagai wahyu dari Tuhan, maka tak ada salahnya, bahkan sudah seharusnya mereka mempelajari sedikit kebenaran yang terkandung dalam kitab-kitab itu.

Bukankah sebuah hadis (walau lemah, tapi saya anggap benar maknanya) menegaskan bahwa kebijaksanaan adalah barang hilang oran beriman (dallat al-mu’min). Di manapun ia menjumpainya, dialah yang paling berhak atas barang itu. Dengan kata lain, kebenaran layak dipelajari oleh orang beriman, di manapun itu berada. Meski kebenaran itu ada di mulut orang yang beda agamanya dengan dia.

Dengan semangat itulah, saya mengajak Anda untuk menengok sedikit sebuah pelajaran yang ada dalam Injil, Kitab Suci umat Kristen.

Saya membaca sebuah episode perdebatan antara Isa/Yesus dengan orang-orang Farisi. Yang disebut terakhir ini adalah orang-orang Yahudi yang menaati secara harafiah Hukum Taurat sehingga terjerembab dalam pola beragama yang kaku, harafiah, skripturalis.

Episode ini menarik kita pelajari, karena sekarang kita melihat maraknya gejala farisisme di tengah-tengah kita. Yakni gejala beragama yang hanya berpegangan secara harafiah pada Quran dan hadis, tanpa memperhatikan semangat hukum yang ada di balik perintah dalam dua sumber itu.

Dalam episode yang dikisahkan di Injil Matius 15:1-20 dan Markus 7:1-23 itu, ada cerita demikian. Orang-orang Farisi datang kepada Isa/Yesus. Mereka protes: Kenapa pengikutnya tidak membasuh tangan sebelum makan seperti dikenal dalam adat-istiadat bangsa Yahudi?

Jawaban Isa/Yesus atas protes kaum Farisi ini sangat menarik. Ia mengkritik cara beragama orang-orang Yahudi/Farisi yang berpegang teguh pada Hukum Taurat, tetapi melupakan semangat yang mendasarinya. Mereka berpegang pada huruf, tetapi lupa pada roh yang melandasinya.

Dalam kerangka kritik itulah, kemudian Isa/Yesus melontarkan sebuah pernyataan yang populer dan sering dikutip oleh teman-teman Kristen, “Dengar dan camkanlah: bukan yang masuk ke dalam mulut yang menajiskan orang, melainkan yang keluar dari mulut, itulah yang menajiskan orang.” (Matius 15:11)

Saya sangat tertarik oleh komentar yang lugas dan tajam dari Isa/Yesus ini. Statemen ini, secara tak langsung, merupakan kritik etis atas bangas Yahudi yang terobsesi dengan isu halal/haram, sama dengan umat Islam. Banyak daftar halal-haram dalam agama Yahudi, seperti tertuang dalam Kitab Imamat (Leviticus) dan Ulangan (Deuteronomy) di Perjanjian Lama.

Sebagian dari hukum halal-haram dalam agama Yahudi itu “diteruskan” oleh Islam. Salah satunya: larangan makan babi, darah, dan bangkai (QS 5:3).

Hewan yang dilarang untuk dikonsumsi menurut Kitab Taurat, dianggap kotor atau najis oleh  bangsa Yahudi. Tradisi mencuci tangan sebelum makan juga dianggap sebagai bagian dari cara menjaga pola hidup yang sehat oleh mereka.

Yang dikritik oleh Isa/Yesus sebetulnya bukan soal pentingnya makan dengan sehat. Melainkan cara berpikir yang dikendalikan oleh hukum halal-haram, seolah-olah hal itu sudah mencukupi untuk menjadi orang beragama yang baik.

Kritiknya sangat tajam. Yang membuat najis seseorang, kata Isa/Yesus, bukan makanannya, tetapi omongan dan ucapan yang keluar dari mulutnya. Dengan kata lain, apalah artinya bangsa Yahudi menaati dengan ketat hukum kosher atau halal-haram, tetapi mulutnya kotor karena sering menyakiti orang lain, menghakimi orang-orang lain yang beda pandangan, seperti kelakuan orang-orang Farisi.

Dalam Injil, kita jumpai banyak sekali perdebatan antara Isa/Yesus dan para imam dan ahli agama orang-orang Yahudi. Karir profetik Isa/Yesus nyaris seluruhnya ditumpahkan untuk melakukan kritik atas agama farisisme semacam itu.

Saya melihat, pesan yang menonjol dalam ajaran Isa/Yesus adalah pentingnya aspek cinta kasih, dan kritik pada pola beragama yang melulu dikendalikan oleh huruf dan aksara hukum dalam Kitab Suci.

Berhadapan dengan status quo agama Yahudi yang sangat ketat berpegang pada Hukum Taurat, Isa/Yesus datang dengan kritik yang tajam atas itu. Dia mengajukan pola beragama alternatif: beragama yang berpegang pada hukum cinta kasih, bukan hukum do-and-don’t, halal-haram.

Kritik Isa/Yesus atas agama Yahudi, sebenarnya, adalah sama dengan kritik kaum sufi dalam Islam atas pola beragama yang terlalu fiqh-oriented. Umat Islam layak belajar dari kritik-kritik Nabi Isa ini — salah satu nabi yang mereka imani sebagai utusan Tuhan.[]

 

 

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