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Yang Penting Bukan Imanmu, Tapi Tindakanmu

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IslamLib – Orang-orang beriman kerap bertengkar mengenai apa yang disebut sebagai “truth claim”, klaim kebenaran. Mereka sering mendaku, agama dan iman yang mereka peluk paling benar; yang lain salah, sesat, dan hanya akan  menggiring pemeluknya ke neraka. Na’uzu billahi min dzalik…

Kleim seperti ini sering kita dengar, terutama dari kalangan umat Islam. Pendakuan semacam ini bisa kita pandang sebagai hal yang alamiah saja (setiap pemeluk agama boleh-boleh saja menganggap agamanya paling benar; apa masalahnya?).

Tetapi bisa juga menimbulkan soal. Apalagi jika akibat dari pendakuan semacam ini muncul sikap-sikap intoleran, atau bahkan agresif terhadap orang-orang lain yang berkeyakinan berbeda. Saya menyebutnya “diffaith” (people with different faith).

Dalam studi-studi keagamaan modern (religious studies), ini disebut sebagai problem keselamatan, the discourse of salvation. Pertanyaan yang sering muncul di sana: Siapakah yang selamat? Apakah mereka yang tak memeluk keyakinan kami akan selamat juga sampai ke sorga? Apakah keselamatan bersifat eksklusif atau universal?

Masih banyak yang memercayai keselamatan eksklusif. Saya menduga mayoritas umat Islam masih berpandangan seperti ini. Tetapi pandangan baru mulai berkembang. Pandangan ini memandang keselamatan berlaku universal. Yang akan diselamatkan Tuhan adalah siapa saja yang dengan tulus mengimani adanya Sang Khalik dan berbuat kebaikan.

Di Indonesia, tokoh-tokoh Muslim seperti “dua jawara pemikiran Islam” dari Jombang, yaitu Gus Dur dan Cak Nur, mengikuti pandangan tentang keselamatan universal ini. Juga tokoh Muhammadiyah seperti Buya Syafii Maarif atau Amin Rais.

Mereka yang berpandangan universal ini percaya bahwa yang membuat seseorang selamat (saved) dan masuk sorga adalah iman dan amal baik. Iman di sini bukan saja iman dalam pengertian partikular, yaitu iman ala Islam, melainkan iman dalam bentuknya yang generik. Sesiapa saja yang percaya akan adanya pencipta dan beramal baik maka ia akan diselamatkan, tak peduli agama dan kepercayaannya.

Saya berpandangan lebih jauh lagi: yang membuat seseorang diselamatkan hanyalah satu belaka, perbuatan baik (amal salih). Sebab, pada pandangan saya, inti agama pada dasarnya adalah menjadikan manusia sebagai individu yang baik, bermoral, serta bertanggung jawab.

Ini bukan berarti iman tak penting di mata saya. Hanya saja, saya ingin menggeser perhatian kita dari melulu bersoal-tengkar tentang iman. Perbuatan dan tindakan baik justru lebih layak menjadi perhatian kita dalam menelaah dan menilai mutu keberagamaan seseorang.

Agama yang tak mampu mentransformasikan seseorang menjadi manusia yang bermoral dan berlaku etis dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, ia telah gagal menjadi agama yang transformatif. Bagi saya, semua agama adalah baik dan benar, apapun isi teologi agama-agama itu.

Yang menjadi soal, bagi saya, bukan isi teologi dan doktrin agama. Apakah agama A atau B mengajarkan monoteisme atau politeisme, buat saya tak terlalu penting. Fokus kita dalam menelaah agama sebaiknya bukan diarahkan pada doktrin teologis, melainkan pada ajaran moralnya.

Apakah suatu agama memiliki ajaran moral yang jitu dan tepat tidak untuk menjadikan seseorang menjadi “ethical human being”? Itu pokok soalnya.

Dengan kata lain, yang perlu kita persoalkan bukan ajaran teologis agama, tetapi buah dari ajaran itu dalam tindakan sehari-hari. Apalah gunanya seseorang bersyahadat dan bertauhid sebagai Muslim tetapi merusak dan membakar gereja, menyatroni orang lain yang berpandangan berbeda? Apalah gunanya bertauhid jika orang itu melakukan kebrutalan seperti ISIS?

Sekarang ini, kita makin banyak menyaksikan gejala orang-orang yang beragama secara (menurut standar umum) “saleh”, tetapi perspektif sosialnya justru kian menciut. Ini ditunjukkan dengan sikap dia yang kian eksklusif dan mudah “menghakimi” kelompok lain yang berbeda.

Jika kesalehan berkorelasi secara lurus dengan sikap-sikap sosial yang intoleran, ini bukanlah keberagamaan yang positif dan ideal. Tak terlalu banyak gunanya seseorang beriman secara “benar” tetapi sikap sosialnya justru tertutup dan bahkan agresif terhadap orang-orang lain.

Semua agama mengandung ajaran kebaikan, dan menghendaki manusia menjadi inividu yang bermoral, bertindak benar, mengasihi dan menghormati sesama, dsb. Tak ada agama yang mengajarkan kebencian. Ada sih satu dua ayat Quran yang dijadikan pembenaran untuk membenci Yahudi dan Kristen. Tapi itu soal lain yang akan saya bahas dalam esai mendatang.

Karena semua agama pada esensinya menghendaki kebaikan untuk manusia, tak terlalu penting mempersoalkan iman dan ajaran agama manapun.

Yang lebih penting untuk dipersoalkan adalah kemampuan manusia yang memeluk agama itu untuk menerjemahkan ajaran kebaikan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Mampukah umat Islam, misalnya, menerjemahkan ajaran rahmat (kasih sayang) dalam kehidupan sosial, lebih penting dipersoalkan ketimbang soal mana akidah yang paling benar, dan mana yang sesat.

Tindakan yang baik menandakan bahwa iman seseorang adalah iman yang tepat dan benar. Begitu juga sebaliknya. Seseorang yang mendaku bertauhid, tetapi tindakannya justru sarat dengan kekerasan dan intoleransi, ini jelas pertanda ada masalah dengan iman dan tauhidnya.[]

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