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‘Le Discours Impensable’ Masalah Sumber Islam Nusantara

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Hubungan Islam dan kebudayaan Nusantara adalah ‘alaqah jadaliyah (hubungan dialektik) bukan ‘alaqah ikhda’ (hubungan penundukan-subordinatif) oleh satu pihak pada pihak lain. Islam Nusantara lebih mendahulukan cara-cara persuasi daripada konfrontasi, lebih mengutamakan jalan damai ketimbang jalan perang walau dalam beberapa kasus perang tak terhindarkan terutama sejak penjajah merampas kedaulatan Nusantara. – Abdul Moqsith Ghazali, Islamlib.com 8/7/2015

IslamLib – Islam Nusantara sebenarnya merupakan konsep kultural dan paradigmatik, yang memanfaatkan nilai-nilai kearifan Nusantara untuk menghayati Islam. Sebagai konsep kultural, konsep tersebut dirumuskan melalui pengarsipan pengetahuan, baik itu yang resmi dan dianggap ilmiah (connaissance), maupun yang tidak resmi (savoir). Kedua sumber tersebut, bisa digali dari sejarah maupun pengolahan-ulang terhadap interpretasi sejarah tertentu.

Sementara itu, hasilnya, barangkali merupakan produk intelektual yang benar-benar baru dan hasil produksi dari aktivitas nalar kontemporer. Hasil yang secara filosofis dipandang sebagai moralitas-etis ke-Nusantara-an ini, lantas dipertimbangkan agar menjadi paradigma (state of mind) bagi kaum Muslim di era dan lokus kekinian dan kedisinian.

Hampir seluruh produk konseptual Islam Nusantara bersifat positif. Sebagian kalangan malah menganggapnya sebagai ‘humanisme universal’ ala manusia Nusantara. Pendek kata, Islam Nusantara bersifat serba luhur, adiluhung dan hampir-hampir sangat sempurna. Penulis sendiri secara utopis, membayangkan Islam Nusantara sebagai Islam yang damai, sejahtera, toleran, penuh cinta kasih dan mengutamakan kemanusiaan ketimbang hukum-hukum agama yang kaku.

Tidak terkecuali intelektual muda Nahdlatul ‘Ulama’ (NU) yang sangat progresif, Abdul Moqsith Ghazali, menandaskan bahwa “Islam (Nusantara) merupakan jalan damai yang produktif.” Secara lebih jauh ia mengungkapkan, itu semua dapat diraih oleh karena, “Hubungan Islam dan kebudayaan Nusantara adalah ‘alaqah jadaliyah (hubungan dialektik) bukan ‘alaqah ikhda’ (hubungan penundukan-subordinatif) oleh satu pihak pada pihak lain.”

Konsekuensi logis dari proses dialektika kultural tersebut, menjadikan “Islam Nusantara lebih mendahulukan cara-cara persuasi daripada konfrontasi, lebih mengutamakan jalan damai ketimbang jalan perang walau dalam beberapa kasus perang tak terhindarkan terutama sejak penjajah merampas kedaulatan Nusantara.” Intinya adalah, Islam versi ini sangat nir-kekerasan.

Kendati demikian, bagaimana dengan sumber-sumber historis yang justru menegaskan dan membuktikan (secara tak terbantahkan), mengenai Islam di Nusantara masa lalu yang totaliter, menjajah, dehumanistik dan sangat pro-kekerasan? Saya kira, ini adalah wilayah pemikiran filsafati yang tak terjangkau oleh proyek Islam Nusantara, sebagai hal yang tak terjamah: le discours impensable!

Dalam konteks ini, secara sengaja, interpreter sejarah lebih suka mengangkat kembali kisah Wali Songo, sebagai representasi historis yang baik untuk menekankan pentingnya Islam Nusantara. Namun 100% dari kisah Wali Songo yang diajukan-ulang ke ruang publik, sama sekali tidak menyertakan segala aspek yang bersifat kelam dan memilukan. Tentu saja hal ini penting, dalam rangka mengambil ibrah dari sejarah, agar hal tersebut tak berulang. Padahal watak dari sejarah adalah pengulangannya tersebut (l’histoire se repete).

Narasi eksekusi mati terhadap Kyai Lemah Abang oleh Para Sunan, bak ‘Nyanyi Sunyi Seorang Bisu’, meminjam judul dalam karya Pramoedya Ananta Toer. Skandal pembunuhan terhadap Syeikh Siti Jenar tersebut, secara total tidak dimasukkan sebagai bagian dari nilai kebajikan dakwah kesembilan Wali. Atas syahwat politik yang mencapai titik orgasmik tertingginya, sejarah kelam ini sama sekali tidak toleran, tidak damai, tidak nir-kekerasan dan tidak ber-welas asih.

Dalam perkara ini, berarti kesedihan dan kepedihan subyek minoritas ganda pantheis-wujudiyyah Siti Jenar, bukan menjadi obyek pembangunan nilai konsep Islam Nusantara. Siti Jenar dianggap minoritas, karena bermazhab mistisisme Islam yang berbeda (liyan). Lantas kemudian, Ia juga berhalauan politik non-kekuasaan, yang tidak berjalan beriringan sebagaimana selayaknya para Sunan.

Pertanyaan filosofis yang perlu diajukan adalah, bagaimana mungkin sumber kebajikan (Islam Nusantara) tidak menjangkau pentingnya mewacanakan istilah non-diskriminatif? Karena nyatanya, standar ganda telah berlaku dalam penayangan sumber rujukan pembangunan konsep Islam Nusantara.

Kendati demikian, bukan berarti wacana terhadap nilai-nilai kebajikan kaum minoritas-terdiskriminasi tidak ada. Para ahli mistisisme Islam, sejarawan dan filolog, kerap mengangkat wacana kontroversial Siti Jenar. Sederet nama seperti Ahmad Chodjim, Agus Wahyudi, Abdul Munir Mulkhan, MZ Mandaru, Muhammad Solikhin, Purwadi dan bahkan sastrawan seperti Seno Gumira Ajidarma tidak absen dalam menangani persoalan ini.

Sayangnya, tidak ada satu pun dari mereka mengelaborasi wacana tersebut dengan konsep Islam Nusantara. Pun sebaliknya, para intelektual Muslim progresif pengusung Islam Nusantara, tidak pernah menyingung persoalan ini, karena mungkin dianggap tidak pernah ada, atau setidaknya, tidak memiliki hubungan yang signifikan.

Di samping cerita tentang Siti Jenar, tentu masih banyak lagi sejarah kelam Islam Nusantara yang tidak dirujuk sebagai sumber pembangunan konsepsi Islam Nusantara itu sendiri. Mirisnya, tidak ada pula kehendak berpikir (l’effort pour penser) yang mengarah kepada penyelenggaraan penyelidikan ilmiah mengenai nilai-nilai negatif di antara sumber-sumber rujukan Islam Nusantara.

Di saat kita mengajukan berbagai prinsip etis mengenai kebajikan tertentu, di saat yang sama, kita harus siap menghadapi hal yang sebaliknya. Bukan hanya yang datang dari realitas kehidupan Muslim masa kini, tetapi juga sumber historis masa lampau. Memang, saat ini kita sedang didera merebaknya pemikiran Islam yang intoleran, pro-kekerasan, teror dan konservatisme yang dangkal.

Tentu saja kita tidak hendak mencoreng muka sendiri. Tetapi untuk mendiagnosa sekaligus memikirkan cara-cara apa saja agar supaya hal tersebut bisa diatasi dengan baik. Misalnya, dari sejarah kelam, perlu kiranya merumuskan solusi bagi adanya tindak diskriminatif masa lalu yang didukung oleh kekuasaan agama dan politik.

Dalam ruang dan waktu yang berbeda sejarawan-novelis seperti Farag Fouda dan Salman Rusdie telah memberikan contoh yang bermanfaat. Mereka berdua jelas bukan bermaksud membuka luka lama atau mengorek aib realitas Muslim yang bejat. Betapapun kontroversialnya mereka, saya kira, sumber kebajikan kita sendiri perlu diuji ketahanannya.

Memang konsekuensinya, apabila kita bersepakat untuk menyelidiki secara ilmiah persoalan hitam ini, akan menimbulkan kebisingan di mana-mana. Tidak hanya dari pihak yang menentang wacana Islam Nusantara, tetapi bahkan, para pengusung Islam Nusantara itu sendiri yang tidak siap menghadapi kenyataan kompleksitas pengetahuan di hadapan mimbar akademik-ilmiah.

Adalah Mun’im Sirry, seorang Profesor di Universitas Notre Dame, Amerika Serikat, menerbitkan buku yang bertajuk, “Kontroversi Islam Awal, Antara Mazhab Tradisionalis dan Revisionis” (2015). Buku tersebut memuat antara lain tentang sumber masalah pemikiran keagamaan, yakni masalah sumber. Ia menyimpulkan bahwa, tidak ada sumber yang benar-benar valid menurut kaca mata ilmiah di dalam pemikiran keagamaan Islam.

Sejatinya, mengkaji masalah sumber ini secara tidak langsung justru membuka peluang yang seluas-luasnya untuk lebih memperkokoh bangunan filosofis suatu konsep tertentu. Demikian halnya dengan Islam Nusantara, tidak cukup kiranya membicarakan masalah nilai. Perlu kiranya membangun fondasi filosofis yang lebih kuat, dari yang pernah dirancang sebelumnya. Akhirnya, non-diskriminasi harus menjadi basis nilai akan moralitas etis Islam Nusantara (nilai akan nilai).[]

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