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Haruskah Diskusi Dihentikan Saat Waktu Salat Tiba? Q&A Islam

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IslamLib – Bandara Cengkareng. Terminal internasional. Saya sedang duduk di sebuah lounge, menunggu penerbangan ke Frankfurt. Ada banyak penumpang di ruangan itu. Tetapi suasana cukup sepi, tenang, “khusyuk”. Semua orang tenggelam dalam dunianya masing-masing: komputer, gadget, koran, buku. Sebagian ada yang sekedar ngantuk dan bengong. Tak ada yang spesial dalam ruangan itu kecuali suasana tenang yang mengandung kecemasan: masing-masing orang menunggu tak sabar panggilan untuk naik pesawat.

Lalu, datanglah serombongan ibu-ibu, memecah kesunyian yang janggal itu. Dari penampilan luarnya, mereka tampaknya ibu-ibu kelas menengah. Dari keriuhan obrolan antar mereka, saya jadi tahu, mereka sedang dalam perjalanan menuju ke Negeri Teluk. Yang menarik dari ibu-ibu ini bukan keramaian “chit-chat” mereka yang memecah suasana sunyi di ruangan itu.

Yang menarik adalah saat adzan Maghrib tiba, dan ibu-ibu itu dengan serentak mencari tempat wudu, dan melakukan salat di sana. Tak ada musala di lounge itu. Mereka terpaksa salat di sudut sempit di ruangan itu, di sela-sela kursi dan para penumpang (sebagian orang-orang bule) yang tampak terbengong-bengong melihat selingan “spiritual” yang terhampar di depan mata mereka.

Melihat pemandangan ini, terus terang saya terombang-ambing antara dua perasaan: terharu dan sekaligus aneh. Terharu, karena melihat keteguhan ibu-ibu itu menjalankan ritual agama tepat pada waktunya. Ketaatan yang teguh di tengah-tengah “ambience” yang sekular, di tengah-tengah ruangan yang tak kondusif, tentu ini mengharukan.

Ketaatan yang “keras kepala” itu tampaknya membuat seseorang memiliki pegangan yang teguh di tengah kehidupan modern yang serba tak pasti. Semacam jangkar yang membawa rasa kepastian dan ketenangan.

Tetapi, pemandangan itu juga sekaligus tampak aneh di mata saya. Pertanyaan yang segera mengganggu saya saat melihat ibu-ibu itu melaksanakan salat di sela-sela kursi, dengan posisi yang sama sekali tak nyaman ialah: apakah mungkin melakukan sembahyang yang khusyuk di tengah-tengah ruang yang ‘sekular’ semacam itu? Apakah mungkin melakukan meditasi di tengah keramaian?

Pertanyaan lain yang mengganggu saya: Apakah layak seorang Muslim mempertontonkan ritual ibadah di tempat umum yang bukan dikhususkan untuk itu? Jika waktu salat tiba, dan kita sedang di tempat umum, taruhlah di mall, sementara di sekitar tak ada musala atau tempat meditasi, apakah kita harus melaksanakan ritual sembahyang di sembarang tempat, sekedar untuk memenuhi kewajiban salat?

Saya berpendapat, sebaiknya ibadah dilakukan di tempat yang memang dikhususkan untuk itu. Melaksanakan ibadah di sembarang tempat, menurut saya kurang tepat. Jika waktu salat tiba, dan kita tak menemukan tempat yang layak, lebih baik salat itu kita jamak (digabung dengan salat berikutnya), sampai kita menemukan tempat yang layak. Sebagaimana kita tak bisa berjualan di sembarang tempat, begitu juga ibadah semabahyang. Apalagi di tempat umum yang kurang pantas.

Benar, Nabi pernah bersabda, seluruh bumi ini adalah masjid bagi seorang beriman, wa ju’ilat liya ‘l-ardu masjidan wa tahuran. Tetapi ini bukan berarti bahwa kita bisa melakukan ritual keagamaan di sembarang tempat, tanpa mempertimbangkan kepantasan umum dan tata kota yang ada di sebuah kawasan.

Teman saya, Ibu Musdah Mulia, seorang Muslimah feminis terkemuka di negeri ini, memiliki solusi lain. Ia memakai teori fikih yang disebut salat li hurmat al-waqt. Yakni: sembahyang untuk menghormati kesucian waktu. Jika waktu salat tiba dan dia ada di sebuah tempat yang tak memungkinkan melaksanakan ritual itu, misalnya di pesawat, dia akan salat dengan cara duduk. Dia bersuci dengan cara khusus yang disebut tayammum (bersuci/berwudu tidak dengan air, melainkan dengan debu).

Tentu saja di pesawat tak ada debu. Tetapi Ibu Musdah mengikuti pendapat Abu Hanifah: kita boleh ber-tayammum dengan mengusapkan tangan pada tembok atau obyek-obyek lain. Saya beberapa kali menyaksikan Ibu Musdah melaksanakan salat dalam keadaan duduk seperti itu. Ketika saya tanya: Kenapa tidak digabung saja salatnya? Jawab Ibu Musdah: Saya salat untuk menghormati kesucian waktu.

Menurut saya, metode yang dipakai Ibu Musdah ini jauh lebih elegan. Jika anda berada di sebuah tempat yang tak memungkinkan salat dengan cara yang “proper” sesuai dengan aturan yang berlaku dalam situasi normal, anda bisa melaksanakannya dengan cara duduk, seperti meditasi. Saya selalu melakukan “sit-in prayer” ini jika sedang berada di kendaraan, terjebak macet, dan tak mungkin melaksanakan salat di tempat yang wajar.

Ada juga pemandangan lain yang juga kerap menjengkelkan saya: Saat sebuah diskusi atau seminar sedang berlangsung, lalu waktu salat tiba, serentak kegiatan harus dihentikan di tengah jalan untuk salat. Biasa disebut: rehat untuk salat. (Bahkan ada yang menggunakan istilah “nakal”: Maksiat — makan, istirahat, salat).

Di beberapa komunitas Islam di kota, ini mulai menjadi tren: menginterupsi diskusi dengan salat, seolah-olah dengan itu sebuah kesalehan sedang ditegakkan at all cost. Bukan hanya itu: Diskusi bahkan harus dihentikan saat adzan berkumandang.

Saya teringat seloroh Gus Dur saat menghadiri sebuah diskusi (saya lupa di mana), dan moderator hendak menyetopnya sejenak karena adzan berkumandang dari masjid sebelah. Kata Gus Dur: “Anggap saja itu adzannya orang Syiah.” Seluruh hadirin tergelak.

Menurut saya, menghentikan diskusi hanya untuk melaksanakan salat adalah tindakan kesalehan yang salah tempat, a misplaced piety. Pertama: diskusi dan seminar adalah kegiatan mencari ilmu (talab al-‘ilm), dan dengan demikian ia juga masuk dalam tindakan kesalehan juga. Mengalahkan ilmu demi melaksanakan salat adalah tindakan yang kurang tepat.

Kedua: Sembahyang, menurut fikih atau hukum Islam, memiliki rentang waktu yang cukup panjang. Salat lohor, misalnya, waktunya cukup panjang: kira-kira mulai dari pukul 12 hingga 3 sore. Anda bisa melaksanakan sembahyang di antara rentang itu. Tak ada keharusan melaksanakan salat di awal waktu.

Kegiatan mencari ilmu tak kalah nilainya dari, jika tidak malah melebihi ritual seperti sembahyang. Mengalahkan yang satu demi yang lainnya bukan tindakan yang tepat. Diskusi bisa berjalan terus, dan sembahyang bisa dilaksanakan setelah diskusi selesai. Apalagi jika kita pertimbangkan pendapat sebagian mazhab dalam fikih di mana ada beberapa salat yang sebaiknya dilaksanakan bukan di awal waktu, melainkan di tengah atau di bagian akhir: seperti salat lohor, asar dan subuh.

Saya masih ingat, ketika saya nyantri di tempat Kiai Maimun Zubair, Sarang, Rembang: beliau selalu melaksanakan salat subuh ketika sudah mendekati matahari terbit. Karena pesantren Kiai Maimun tepat di pinggir pantai, biasanya beliau salat subuh dalam keadaan hari sudah terang. Ini berbeda dengan kebiasaan di pesantren Kajen, dari mana saya berasal: salat subuh diadakan persis di awal waktu, ketika hari masih gelap.

Poin yang ingin saya sampaikan ialah: menyetop diskusi untuk melaksanakan salat di awal waktu bukanlah ide yang baik. Itu bukan tanda kesalehan. Sebab mencari ilmu lewat diskusi tak kalah penting dibandingkan dengan ritual ibadah. Apalagi, ibadah seperti sembahyang memiliki rentang waktu yang panjang.

Bahwa umat Islam saat ini menunjukkan ketataan ritual yang begitu tinggi, seperti diperlihatkan oleh ibu-ibu di bandara itu, tentu mengharukan. Tetapi, komitmen ritual semacam ini bisa juga salah tempat dan salah waktu. Bahkan beribadah pun, jika dilakukan tidak dengan mempertimbangkan konteks, bisa juga menjadi peragaan kesalehan yang tampak aneh dan janggal.[]

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