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Religion, Myth, Imagination (Photo: Mark Walz/flickr.com)

Nalar Kekerasan dalam Metafisika Agama

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IslamLib – Kenapa orang beragama melakukan kekerasan? Pertanyaan ini sudah lama mengusik saya setiap kali terjadi peristiwa kekerasan yang melibatkan umat beragama. Apakah itu konflik antar-aliran dalam satu agama, konflik antar-agama, hingga serangan teror yang dikemas dalam idiom-idiom agama.

Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, pertanyaan ini kembali mengusik saya ketika kelompok Negara Islam di Irak dan Suriah (ISIS) berulang kali melakukan dan mempertontonkan kekerasan brutal untuk merealisasikan agenda “perjuangan” mereka.

Memang, dalam kenyataan, kekerasan dapat dilakukan oleh siapapun, termasuk orang yang tidak beragama. Di sisi lain, banyak orang beragama berperilaku welas asih bukan hanya terhadap sesama manusia, tetapi juga terhadap binatang, tumbuhan, dan entitas-entitas alam lainnya.

Harus diakui bahwa agama mengandung ajaran tentang nilai-nilai, yang sangat mungkin memotivasi seseorang untuk memperlakukan manusia dan alam dengan kelembutan dan kasih sayang.

Dalam kenyataan pula bahwa suatu konflik—termasuk konflik yang melibatkan umat beragama—dapat terjadi dengan melibatkan banyak variabel.

Motivasi politik dan/atau ekonomi, misalnya, layak diduga berkontribusi terhadap berbagai kekerasan yang dilakukan oleh, misalnya, tentara Israel atau gerilyawan Hamas dalam perseteruan antara Israel vs Palestina. Atau kelompok teroris Al-Qaeda dalam serangan terhadap menara World Trade Centre (WTC) di Amerika Serikat. Juga kekejaman ISIS ketika melakukan penculikan, pemerkosaan, dan pembunuhan terhadap aparat militer dan warga sipil di Timur Tengah.

Sungguhpun demikian, yang saya persoalkan bukanlah ada atau tidaknya variabel non-agama yang terlibat dalam peristiwa kekerasan. Sebagaimana perbuatan baik layak diduga dimotivasi oleh ajaran agama, bukan tidak mungkin bahwa agama juga berkontribusi terhadap kekerasan yang dilakukan oleh pemeluknya.

Narasi Kekerasan dalam Kitab Suci. Bukan rahasia lagi bahwa kitab suci agama-agama Abrahamik—Yahudi, Kristen, dan Islam—memuat banyak narasi kekerasan. Sejumlah ayat dalam Alkitab dan Alquran secara eksplisit membenarkan dan bahkan mempromosikan penggunaan kekerasan, mulai dari perampasan harta benda, perbudakan, hingga pembunuhan.

Sejarah juga mencatat bahwa berbagai bentuk kekerasan yang dinarasikan dalam Alkitab dan Alquran secara faktual terjadi dalam kehidupan masyarakat Yahudi, Kristen, dan Islam sejak dulu hingga sekarang.

Para pemeluk agama kerap berkilah bahwa kekerasan bukanlah dimensi esensial agama. Para pemeluk agama berhaluan moderat berargumen bahwa ayat-ayat dalam kitab suci memiliki konteks historis tertentu, sehingga tidak boleh dipahami secara literalistik.

Suatu ayat mungkin terkesan menarasikan kekerasan. Namun, narasi kekerasan ini memiliki konteks politik, ekonomi, dan budaya tertentu. Di balik narasi kekerasan ini terkandung esensi agama, yaitu nilai-nilai yang membawa kebaikan bagi manusia dan alam semesta seperti cinta kasih, perdamaian, penghargaan, toleransi, dan sebagainya.

Tidak seperti narasi kekerasan yang keberlakuannya dibatasi oleh konteks historisnya, relevansi nilai-nilai yang dipandang sebagai dimensi esensial agama tersebut berlaku secara universal dan tanpa batas waktu.

Karena itu, menurut pemeluk agama berhaluan moderat, perilaku keberagamaan harus mengedepankan nilai-nilai kebaikan universal ketimbang narasi kekerasan yang tampak di permukaan.

Gaya berkilah ini rupanya juga dilakukan oleh para pemeluk agama berhaluan radikal. Meskipun gemar melakukan kekerasan, mereka bersikukuh bahwa agama secara esensial merupakan jalan keselamatan yang membawa kebaikan bagi manusia dan alam.

Ketimbang sebagai esensi agama, kekerasan dipahami oleh pemeluk berhaluan radikal sebagai strategi untuk menegakkan kebaikan dan menghancurkan kejahatan.

Dari sudut pandang pemeluk berhaluan radikal, tindak kekerasan dibenarkan secara moral untuk mempertahankan diri dari ancaman kelompok-kelompok yang dianggap sebagai musuh; membangun tata sosial ekonomi, politik, dan budaya berbasis ajaran agama; dan menyebarluaskan agama.

Dengan demikian, baik pemeluk agama berhaluan moderat maupun mereka yang berhaluan radikal, keduanya berbagi pandangan tentang kebaikan sebagai dimensi esensial agama. Adapun kekerasan dipahami sebagai dimensi yang semata-mata bersifat aksidental.

Apakah demikian kenyataannya? Menurut saya, kekerasan dalam narasi kitab suci tidak bersifat aksidental terkait dengan pemahaman keagamaan yang literalistik.

Sebagaimana saya bahas di bawah, baik narasi kekerasan dalam kitab suci maupun kekerasan yang dilakukan oleh seorang atau kelompok pemeluk agama, didorong oleh suatu mekanisme nalar yang menghidupi agama itu sendiri.

Metafisika Agama dan Nalar Kekerasan. Agama-agama Abrahamik mungkin berasal dari pewahyuan berdasarkan keyakinan pemeluknya, namun merupakan sebuah pengetahuan manusiawi dari sudut pandang antropologis. Dengan demikian, Yahudi, Kristen, dan Islam—yang oleh pemeluknya sering disebut sebagai “agama langit”—secara antropologis tidak berbeda dari Hindu, Buddha, dan agama-agama lain.

Sebagai pengetahuan, agama lahir dari proses penalaran dengan watak yang khas. Kekhasan dari proses penalaran agama terletak pada kecenderungannya untuk memetakan entitas-entitas dalam kategori-kategori ontologis yang beroposisi seperti Ada vs Tiada, Pencipta vs Ciptaan, Tuhan vs Hamba, dan sebagainya.

Dalam tradisi filsafat, kecenderungan bernalar seperti ini merupakan watak umum sejenis pengetahuan yang disebut metafisika. Metafisika mengandaikan adanya eksistensi yang menjadi sumber atau asal-usul bagi eksistensi yang lain, sehingga hubungan antara berbagai eksistensi tidak pernah berada dalam posisi yang setara secara ontologis.

Narasi mitologis dalam kitab suci agama-agama Abrahamik mengembangkan suatu metafisika tentang sosok Allah sebagai asal-usul bagi eksistensi alam semesta, yang mana kemudian Allah dipandang sebagai Yang Ada, Pencipta dan Tuhan di hadapan alam semesta sebagai Yang Tiada, Ciptaan, dan Hamba.

Oposisi Allah vs alam mendasari kerangka kerja metafisika Abrahamik yang mencakup relasi antara berbagai entitas seperti Manusia vs Alam, Laki-laki vs Perempuan, dan sebagainya.

Dalam nalar metafisika, entitas-entitas beroposisi secara hierarkis. Salah satu entitas dipandang bersifat primer dan memegang kendali karena diasumsikan lebih merepresentasikan Allah dibandingkan dengan entitas lawannya.

Mitologi dalam Alkitab dan Alquran menarasikan bahwa manusia, misalnya, diciptakan oleh Allah dalam citra-Nya. Akibatnya, meskipun bagian dari alam, manusia diasumsikan menempati posisi superior terhadap entitas-entitas lain.

Oposisi hierarkis juga tampak dalam relasi antara laki-laki dan perempuan. Dinarasikan dalam kitab suci bahwa perempuan adalah manusia yang diciptakan dari tulang rusuk laki-laki. Karena itu, meskipun perempuan adalah manusia sebagaimana laki-laki, metafisika Abrahamik memosisikan perempuan sebagai subordinat bagi laki-laki. Bayang-bayang dari bayang-bayang Allah.

Ketaksetaraan relasi oposisi antara entitas-entitas berlanjut dari wilayah ontologi (eksistensi) ke epistemologi (pengetahuan) dan aksiologi (nilai-nilai).

Metafisika Abrahamik tidak hanya memahami Allah sebagai sumber eksistensi (Yang Ada), tetapi juga sumber pengetahuan (Yang Benar), dan sumber nilai-nilai (Yang Baik). Dari sini, pewahyuan diklaim sebagai satu-satunya cara bagi manusia untuk dapat mengetahui kenyataan, kebenaran, dan kebaikan.

Keistimewaan manusia sebagai representasi Allah menjadikannya mampu mengetahui kebenaran dan kebaikan Ilahiah. Dengan berbekal pengetahuan tersebut manusia dipandang memiliki kapasitas untuk mewakili Allah dalam menjalankan kuasa-Nya atas alam.

Laki-laki, sebagai jenis manusia pertama yang diciptakan Allah, dianugerahkan berperan sebagai pemimpin bagi perempuan. Dari sini dapat dipahami kenapa dalam tradisi agama-agama Abrahamik tidak mengenal seorang pun rasul atau nabi yang berasal dari jenis perempuan.

Manusia, sebagai satu-satunya entitas yang diciptakan Allah berdasarkan citra-Nya, berada dalam perangkap sepanjang hidupnya. Kemampuan manusia bernalar menempatkannya dalam posisi dilematis ketika dihadapkan pada hubungan utang-piutang dengan Allah sebagai pemilik kehidupan.

Alkitab dan Alquran menarasikan secara terang benderang bagaimana Abraham (Ibrahim, dalam versi Islam) harus mengorbankan kemampuan bernalarnya ketika Allah meminta dia untuk membunuh putra kesayangannya, Isaac (Ismail, dalam versi Islam), demi melunasi janjinya kepada Allah.

Memang, Allah tampak berbuat kebaikan ketika, pada akhirnya, menggagalkan pembunuhan tersebut dengan mengganti Isaac (Ismail) dengan seekor binatang ternak. Namun, andaipun substitusi Isaac (Ismail) dengan binatang ternak itu adalah sebuah kebaikan, maka kebaikan tersebut harus dipahami dalam konteks kekerasan yang melatarbelakanginya.

Lebih jauh, substitusi Isaac (Ismail) dengan binatang ternak mengawali ritual pengorbanan yang dilakukan secara berkelanjutan (setidaknya dalam lingkungan masyarakat Muslim), yang semakin menegaskan hubungan utang-piutang antara manusia dan Allah yang tak akan pernah lunas terbayar.

Dalam metafisika Abrahamik, hierarki ontologis antara Allah dan manusia menjadikan manusia sebagai obyek kekerasan. Namun, pada saat yang sama, keistimewaan manusia sebagai citra dan wakil Allah menempatkan manusia pada relasi yang bersifat antroposentristik dengan alam yang dipandang memiliki status ontologis lebih rendah dari manusia.

Sebagai citra Allah, manusia memahami alam sebagai entitas yang ada bagi manusia. Sebagai wakil Allah, manusia memiliki kewenangan untuk memanipulasi dan mengeksploitasi alam untuk kepentingan eksistensinya. Apa yang dilakukan manusia dalam berelasi dengan alam tak lain mereplikasikan kekerasan yang dilakukan Allah terhadap manusia.

Nalar kekerasan dalam metafisika Abrahamik juga tampil dalam relasi antara sesama manusia. Selain ketimpangan relasi antara laki-laki dan perempuan, yang menjelaskan hak-hak eksklusif laki-laki yang tidak dimiliki oleh perempuan, kekerasan dalam relasi antara sesama manusia tampak dalam perebutan klaim tentang siapa di antara mereka yang sungguh-sungguh merepresentasikan Allah.

Dari sinilah berkembang berbagai oposisi baru seperti Pemimpin vs Pengikut, Iman vs Kafir, dan sebagainya, yang menjadi pembenaran bagi ketaksetaraan relasi di antara sesama manusia.

Bangsa Yahudi, misalnya, mengklaim sebagai umat yang terpilih oleh Allah (YHWH) untuk menjadi pemimpin umat manusia. Klaim sejenis juga dilakukan oleh banyak kelompok lain atas dasar supremasi etnis dan/atau keyakinan religius. Masing-masing menganggap diri sebagai umat pilihan yang mengemban tugas Ilahiah untuk “menyelamatkan dunia”.

Semangat untuk menjadi “juru selamat” ini dilegitimasi oleh mekanisme nalar yang mempersamakan hal-hal yang berbeda. Dari sini, perampasan, penculikan, atau pembunuhan yang dilakukan oleh sebagian pemeluk agama sesungguhnya adalah operasionalisasi pada tingkat praktis dari kekerasan pada tingkat teoretis.

Dengan demikian, kekerasan bukanlah dimensi yang bersifat aksidental dalam agama-agama Abrahamik.

Kekerasan yang kerap dilakukan oleh sebagian pemeluk agama-agama Abrahamik bersumber dari mitologi dalam Alkitab dan Alquran yang mengisahkan asal-usul penciptaan dan pola relasi antara Allah dan manusia, antara manusia dan alam, dan antara sesama manusia yang berhadapan secara timpang.

Dengan watak penalaran khas metafisika, kekerasan bersifat esensial dan dapat diibaratkan sebagai jantung yang memompa kehidupan agama-agama Abrahamik.[]

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