Home » Kajian » Kenapa Al-Fatihah?
(Foto: Wikimedia)
(Foto: Wikimedia)

Kenapa Al-Fatihah? La réflexion coranique/Ta’ammulat Qur’aniyyah #1

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Kenapa disebut Al-Fatihah? Saya tak pernah mengajukan pertanyaan semacam ini. Baru semalam, dalam perjalanan pulang dari acara buka bersama di sebuah kawasan di Menteng bersama seorang pemikir Muslim Amerika Amina Wadud, di benak saya tiba-tiba terbetik pertanyaan tersebut.

Ya, kenapa surah pembuka dalam Qur’an itu disebut Al-Fatihah? Kenapa tidak disebut “muqaddimah” (pengantar), atau “tamhid” (preambule).

Jawaban yang langsung meloncat ke benak kita tentu adalah ini: Karena Al-Fatihah secara harafiah artinya adalah pembukaan. Surah ini disebut demikian karena dia menjadi semacam “bab” pembuka bagi kitab yang belakangan disebut sebagai Qur’an.

Tetapi jawaban semacam ini agak kurang memuaskan. Ada ganjalan yang tak disadari oleh banyak orang. Biasanya sesuatu disebut sebagai “pembuka” jika ia ada di muka, di bagian awal dari sesuatu yang lain.

Secara lahiriah, Al-Fatihah memang berada di dalam pembukaan Qur’an. Tetapi ia bukanlah ayat yang pertama turun pada Nabi. Sebagaimana kita tahu, ayat yang pertama turun adalah lima ayat pertama dalam surah nomor 96, yaitu Surah al-‘Alaq.

Artinya, Al-Fatihah bukanlah wahyu pertama yang turun kepada Nabi. Kita sendiri tak tahu kapan persisnya Surah Al-Fatihah ini turun. Sebab, setahu saya, tak ada catatan dalam literatur tafsir klasik mengenai kapan persisnya ayat ini diwahyukan kepada Nabi, pada tahun ke berapa, di bulan apa, dan dalam konteks apa.

Yang secara pasti bisa kita ketahui ialah bahwa surah ini turun di Mekah. Meski ada pendapat Mujahid yang agak kurang umum yang berpendapat bahwa dia turun di Madinah.

Mujahid adalah seorang tabi’in (generasi setelah sahabat Nabi) yang hidup pada Abad ke-8 Masehi dan menjadi salah satu sumber utama tafsir Al-Tabari, salah satu tafsir paling awal yang komprehensif dalam sejarah penafsiran Qur’an.

Kembali ke pertanyaan semula. Kenapa disebut Al-Fatihah? Ada jawaban menarik yang diberikan oleh seorang mufassir Qur’an dari Abad ke-12, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (w. 1209 M) dalam tafsirnya yang masyhur, Mafatih al-Ghaib.

Al-Razi, antara lain, mengatakan: Surah ini disebut demikian karena ia adalah surah (bukan ayat) pertama yang turun secara lengkap. Memang benar, wahyu yang pertama turun pada Nabi adalah ayat yang telah saya sebut di depan.

Tetapi surah yang pertama turun secara utuh adalah Surah Al-Fatihah. Karena itu ia layak disebut sebagai “Pembuka”. Dan karena itu, surah ini juga disebut sebagai “Fatihat al-Kitab”, pembuka dari sebuah buku yang bernama Qur’an.

Saya mencoba memberikan penjelasan lain, atau semacam interpretasi yang agak sedikit berbeda tentang nama Al-Fatihah ini. Dalam perjalanan pulang semalam dari buka puasa bersama yang sudah saya ceritakan tadi, ada sebuah gagasan yang tiba-tiba “mletik” (bahasa Jawa; tercetus) di benak saya.

Adalah menarik bahwa surah ini disebut Al-Fatihah. Kata ini, secara harafiah, artinya adalah pembuka. Kata “fatihah” berasal dari kata kerja “f-t-h” (fataha) yang artinya adalah membuka sesuatu. To open.

Kata Fatihah bisa diartikan sebagai “the opener” dalam pengertian “pembuka”, sesuatu yang membukakan sesuatu yang lain.

Saya langsung terpikir tentang kata “to include” dalam bahasa Inggris, atau kata turunannya: inclusive. Dalam bahasa Indonesia, kita memakai kata ini: “inklusif”. Sungguh menarik bahwa surah pertama dalam Qur’an disebut sebagai Al-Fatihah yang maknanya ialah: “membuka”.

Saya memaknai Al-Fatihah sebagai ajakan untuk mengembangkan sikap membuka diri, inklusif.

Menurut saya, tafsiran semacam ini bukan dipaksakan, sebab ada kaitannya dengan kandungan yang ada dalam surah ini. Mari kita gali makna yang terkandung di sana.

Surah ini dibuka dengan formula atau kalimat berikut ini: Dengan nama Tuhan yang Maha Pengasih dan Maha Penyayang. Bismillahirrahmanirrahim. Atau, kalau mau memakai transliterasi yang agak sedikit lebih akademis, Anda bisa menuliskannya begini: Bismi-l-Lāhi al-Rahmān al-Rahīm.

Formula ini juga sering disebut sebagai basmalah.

Umat Islam diajarkan untuk memulai segala sesuatu dengan membaca basmalah. Formula ini mungkin merupakan kalimat yang paling sering diucapkan oleh umat Islam setiap hari. Sekurang-kurangnya, mereka membaca kalimat ini tujuh belas kali dalam sehari semalam, yakni pada saat salat.

Kalimat ini mengandung ajaran ketuhanan yang penting. Dalam basmalah terkandung konsep teologis tentang Tuhan yang menjadi sumber kasih dan rasa sayang.

Kita bisa mengatakan bahwa Tuhan dalam Islam adalah Tuhan yang menjadi sumber dari cinta (mahabbah) dan kasih sayang (rahmah). The God of love and compassion. Ilahu mahabba wa rahma.

Jika tadi saya menyebut bahwa Al-Fatihah menggambarkan ajakan kepada umat Islam untuk bersikap “inklusif”, membuka diri, melapangkan dada, ini semua ada kaitannya dengan konsep ketuhanan yang diperkenalkan melalui formula basmalah.

Implikasi sikap cinta-kasih, jika ia melekat pada seseorang, adalah kesediaan untuk membuka diri. Jika seseorang mencurigai pihak lain, dia cenderung akan menutup diri rapat-rapat, menegakkan tembok pemisah, meringkuk di dalam tempurung kecurigaan dan kebencian yang sempit dan apak.

Tetapi jika ia memiliki rasa cinta, ia akan membuka diri pada “yang lain”, mengulurkan tangan, membangun jembatan penghubung ke yang lain itu.

Saya lalu teringat pada komentar halus tetapi juga sekaligus “pedas” yang pernah dilontarkan oleh Paus Francis beberapa waktu lalu terhadap Donald Trump (kandidat presiden Amerika Serikat dari Partai Republik pada Pilpres 2016 bulan November mendatang).

Kita tahu, Donald Trump dikenal sebagai sosok “fear monger”, orang yang mengobar-obarkan ketakutan. Bahkan ia pernah mengatakan, jika terpilih menjadi presiden AS, dia akan melarang umat Islam untuk masuk ke negeri itu.

Kata Paus Francis: People who thinks only about building walls, wherever they may be, and not building bridges, is not Christian. This is not in the Gospel.

Sesiapa yang hanya berpikir untuk membangun tembok (pemisah), di manapun dia berada, dan bukan malah membangun jembatan, dia bukanlah orang Kristen. Sikap seperti ini tak ada dalam Injil.

Komentar Paus Francis ini, dengan sangat baik, menggambarkan sikap dua kelompok orang. Pertama: Orang yang ketakutan, dan kedua, orang yang mencintai yang lain. Orang yang takut akan menolak berhubungan dengan orang lain. Sementara orang yang mencintai orang lain akan membuka diri padanya.

Konsekwensi cinta dan kasih sayang adalah: mindset of openness and reaching-out to others.

Cinta, kasih sayang, rahmah membawa implikasi dalam bentuk sikap-sikap sosial yang khas: membuka diri, lapang dada (insyirah al-shadr; ingat surah nomor 94: al-Syarh), inklusif. Bukan menutup diri dan bersembunyi di dalam kotak tempurung, curiga pada yang lain.

Dengan kata lain, rahmah dan cinta membawa kita kepada al-Fatihah: sikap membuka diri kepada “sang liyan”.

Ayat keenam dan ketujuh dalam surah ini juga mengandung ajaran yang sangat menarik. Mari kita baca terjemahan dua ayat itu (saya memakai terjemahan HB Jassin dalam Bacaan Mulia):

Bimbinglah kami ke jalan

Yang lurus lempang,

Jalan orang-orang yang telah Kau beri nikmat,

Bukan orang yang kau murkai,

Dan bukan orang yang sesat jalan

Karena kita sekarang hidup di era di mana kecenderungan takfir dan saling menyesatkan di kalangan umat Islam sedang meruyak di mana-mana, di Indonesia dan juga di negeri-negeri lain; karena kita sedang hidup dalam “the age of takfir”, pertanyaannya adalah: Apakah ayat ini bisa dibaca sebagai ajakan untuk saling menyesatkan? Hanya gara-gara ada kata sesat di sana?

Saya mengatakan: Tidak! Ayat ini mengandung makna yang subtil, halus. Di sana, kita diajarkan untuk memohon kepada Tuhan agar kita diarahkan ke jalan yang (dalam terjemahan HB Jassin yang sangat saya suka) “lurus lempang”.

Artinya apa? Wewenang untuk menentukan apakah sebuah jalan itu lurus-lempang atau tidak, ada pada Tuhan. Tugas kita sebagai manusia, paling jauh, ialah memohon saja kepada Tuhan agar ditunjukkan arah ke sana.

Bukan wewenang kita untuk menyesatkan orang lain, untuk menganggap orang lain kafir, syirik, murtad, bid’ah, dan sebagainya. Sikap saling menyesatkan dan mengkafirkan di antara sesama umat Islam sangat berlawanan dengan semangat Al-Fatihah yang mengajak kita untuk bersikap “membuka diri”, membangun jembatan.

Saling menyesatkan adalah wujud dari tindakan “fear mongering”, menyebarkan ketakutan. Ini bukan manifestasi dari etika rahmah, mahabbah, kasih sayang. The ethics of rahmah/love is in complete contrast to fear mongering.

Surah Al-Fatihah yang membuka kitab suci umat Islam ini langsung menyambar kita dengan pesan yang sangat relevan dengan zaman ini: ajakan untuk membangun sikap-sikap inklusif.

Betapa relevannya surah ini di zaman ketika Donald-trump-isme sedang berkecamuk di mana-mana sekarang.

Wallahu a’lam.

Jakarta, 26 Juni 2016

 

 

 

 

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