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Mengenal Masyarakat Padang Pasir Sejarah Kaum Badui-Arab

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IslamLib – Badui bukan hanya gambaran suku pengembara saja, akan tetapi merupakan cara hidup setepat-tepatnya yang dapat dilakukan manusia untuk bertahan di daerah padang pasir. Di mana ada rumput yang tumbuh, ke sanalah arah mereka pergi mencari padang untuk ternak-ternaknya.

Hidup mengembara di padang pasir dapat dikatakan bersandar pada ilmu pengetahuan. Hidup di daerah seganas itu menuntut kesabaran dan ketepatan dalam beradaptasi dengan alam yang serba sulit.

Jazirah Arab adalah hamparan padang terbesar di muka bumi. Para sarjana ilmu bumi mengatakan bahwa Jazirah Arab adalah sambungan padang pasir Sahara dengan daerah-daerah padang pasir  yang membujur melintasi Asia, Iran Tengah dan Padang Pasir Gobi.

Arab adalah negeri yang paling kering dan panas di atas muka bumi. Walaupun negeri ini berbatasan dengan laut di sebelah timur dan baratnya, namun perairan tersebut tak mampu mengimbangi  kondisi udara Asia-Afrika yang jarang hujan itu.

Karena itulah angin Timur yang sejuk dan segar adalah tema utama yang dijanjikan dan digemari para penyair Arab.

Hidup orang Badui masih seperti nenek moyangnya: tinggal di dalam kemah/tenda yang terbuat dari bulu kambing atau unta, sementara domba dan kambingnya digembalakan di atas padang rumput.

Pekerjaan yang biasa dilakukan oleh masyarakat Badui adalah berternak domba, kadang-kadang mereka berburu. Menurut orang Badui, hanya pekerjaan-pekerjaan itulah yang pantas dikerjakan oleh kaum lelaki.

Adapun bercocok tanam, termasuk segala macam perniagaan dan kerajinan tangan, bertentangan dengan kehormatan mereka. Selain itu, memang tak banyak tanah yang dapat diusahakan. Gandum pun sangat sedikit jumlahnya. Roti adalah sebuah kemewahan bagi orang Badui.

Keadaan alam yang keras dan kejam; hawa yang kering juga tanah yang mengandung asam; tak ada sungai yang mengalir, membuat hidup di daerah ini memerlukan daya adaptasi yang luar biasa. Hanyalah wadi-wadi  yang menampung air hujan, juga kafilah-kafilah yang menjadi penunjuk jalan tatkala ingin melakukan perjalanan haji.

Bermukim di tempat yang dinamai “Daerah Bulan Sabit yang Subur”1) dengan padang pasir yang tandus, kaum Badui tak mengalami perubahan sepanjang masa. Masyarakat Badui, unta dan pohon kurma merupakan pemegang kekuasaan tertinggi di atas padang pasir negeri Arab. Bersama-sama lautan pasir, mereka adalah empat pelaku besar drama padang pasir.

Karena sifatnya yang tak mengenal putus asa dan tahan uji, suku Badui bisa bertahan di suatu daerah yang tak mungkin ditinggali manusia lainnya.

***

Bekas-bekas peninggalan Agama Semit sangat banyak di tanah Arab, seperti mata air Zam Zam dan Batu Hitam. Juga Bethel dalam Perjanjian Lama. Namun demikian, persoalan agama meresap sangat tipis di hati sanubari orang-orang Badui.

Dalam salah satu ayat AlQuran (Q.S 9:98) dijelaskan bahwa: “Orang-orang Arab dari gurun pasir amat sangat kufur dan nifak.” Bahkan penghormatan mereka terhadap Nabi Muhammad hanya berupa ketaatan di bibir saja.

Tubuh seorang Badui terdiri dari kumpulan urat syaraf, tulang dan otot. Semuanya dibentuk oleh kurma dan susu juga daging unta. Buah kurma yang dibubuhi ragi menciptakan minuman kesukaan mereka. Sementara itu, biji kurma yang dihancurkan mereka jadikan roti sebagai makanan sehari-hari untanya.

Cita-cita kaum Badui hanyalah memiliki dua benda berharga, yaitu kurma dan air. Pakaian pun serba kurang, sebagaimana makanan. Pakaian mereka hanya terdiri dari satu helai kemeja panjang dilengkapi sehelai kain yang mengikat pinggangnya. Di samping itu, baju mereka dibuat cukup longgar. Sementara itu, untuk menaungi kepalanya, mereka mengenakan kain yang diikat seutas tali.

Dari semua binatang yang ada di tanah Arab, ada dua yang terpenting, yaitu unta dan kuda. Unta banyak membantui mereka bertahan hidup di padang pasir yang ganas. Bagi orang Badui, unta berlaku multi fungsi. Mulai dari memberi mereka bekal sehari-hari, sebagai alat transportasi, alat perdagangan hingga alat tukar menukar.

Selain itu, jumlah mas kawin, jumlah denda atas pembunuhan, jumlah keuntungan main judi, kekayaan kepala kabilah (Syeikh), semuanya diukur dalam jumlah unta. Unta adalah teman abadi kaum Badui. Bagaikan ibu yang mengayomi di alam luas.

Orang Badui meminum susu unta sebagai pengganti air. Sebab, air hanya diberikan kepada ternak-ternaknya saja. Daging unta menjadi santapan istimewa bagi masyarakat Badui. Kulit unta mereka jadikan pakaian. Tenda tempat berlindung pun dibuat dari bulu unta. Kotorannya dijadikan bahan bakar. Air kencingnya dipakai untuk minyak rambut dan kalau digosokkan ke kulit menjadi penangkal racun serangga gurun.

Bagi kaum Badui, unta adalah anugerah istimewa yang diberikan Allah. Di saat darurat, orang bisa membunuh unta tua, kemudian kerongkongan unta itu dimasuki kayu panjang hingga memuntahkan air. Air tersebut lantas mereka minum. Tidak ada orang Badui yang tak pernah  meminum air dari kerongkongan unta.

Berbeda dengan unta, kuda adalah hewan yang tergolong mewah. Sebab, pemeliharaan dan makanan kuda cukup menyulitkan penghuni padang pasir. Pemilik kuda bisa dikatakan sebagai orang yang hidup cukup mewah.

Literatur Islamlah yang menjadikan kuda sebagai binatang termasyhur. Kuda Arab adalah kuda yang murni. Terkenal dengan keindahan badannya, nafasnya yang kuat, serta kecerdikannya. Di samping itu, kuda juga menunjukkan kesetiaan yang mengharukan kepada tuannya.

Kuda adalah kunci dalam masa-masa penaklukkan Islam. Dengan menggunakan kuda, informasi intelejen bisa cepat sampai. Kuda juga menjadi alat perang yang tak tertandingi. Kuda adalah rahasia utama mengapa pasukan Muslim jarang bisa dikalahkan dalam urusan militer. Di masa-masa perang Salib, orang-orang Inggris (Saxon) banyak mengimpor kuda-kuda Arab.

Bagi kaum Badui sendiri faedah utama dari kuda adalah memungkinkannya perpindahan gerak cepat dari satu tempat ke tempat lainnya. Penyerangan-penyerangan (ghawz) membutuhkan kecepatan dalam setiap operasinya. Selain itu, kuda pun dipakai dalam turnamen dan berburu.

Ketangkasan dalam menunggang kuda menjadi kebanggaan seorang lelaki Arab. Ada sebuah kisah, ketika suatu daerah mengalami kekeringan air, anak-anak kecil menjerit-jerit kehausan. Janganlah berharap persediaan air diberikan kepada anak kecil itu. Sang pemilik lebih rela memberikan air kepada kudanya.

Kuda adalah kendaraan yang dipakai untuk menyerbu musuh (ghawz). Dalam Bahasa Inggris penyerbuan ini disebut juga dengan “razzia”.

***

Sebab tuntutan ekonomi dan sosial serta kerasnya kehidupan di padang pasir, merampok telah menjadi kebiasaan bagi orang Badui. Kebiasaan ini lambat laun menjadi kebiasaan nasional.

Di padang pasir, di mana perjuangan hidup tak mengenal lelah, hukum razzia juga menjadi sebuah keniscayaan. Seorang penyair Badui  Arab menuliskan syair yang berbunyi:

Pekerjaan kami adalah menyerang musuh, menyerang tetangga dan menyerang saudara kami sendiri (jika sudah tidak ada lagi yang harus diserang).

Menjelang kelahiran Islam, suku-suku ini masih sering berperang. Dalam catatan “Ayyâm al-‘Arab” (Hari-hari orang Arab), Ghawz sudah menjadi kebiasaan, bahkan menjadi olahraga nasional.

Persengketaan di kalangan masyarakat Badui biasanya terkait masalah hewan ternak, padang rumput dan mata air. Gerak cepat melalui razzia lantas melahirkan pahlawan lokal yang diabadikan dalam perang syair juga. Para penyair saling berbalas syair untuk memihak kubu yang bersengketa.

Meskipun mereka siap berperang, tidak serta merta orang-orang Badui berani mati. Hukum Ghawz memiliki aturan yang ketat. Anehnya, pertarungan-pertarungan ini bahkan menjadi institusi keagamaan tersendiri dalam kehidupan masyarakat Badui.

Konsep agama  dan keyakinan tersebut menguat sebagai pondasi masyarakat Badui. Setiap tenda mewakili keluarga. Kumpulan tenda-tenda tersebut membentuk suatu wilayah yang disebut “hayy”.

Semua anggota hayy membentuk sebuah klan (qawm). Sejumlah klan yang sedarah, bersama-sama membentuk suku (qablah). Semua anggota tunduk pada seorang kepala Klan (biasanya dipegang oleh anggota tertua). Dialah pemegang panji peperangan keluarganya. Banu (anak dari) merupakan gelar yang digunakan untuk mengawali nama rumpun mereka.

Hubungan darah, baik nyata atau pun dibuat-buat, merupakan unsur perekat dalam sistem kesukuan. Tenda dan perabotan rumah tangga milik pribadi. Akan tetapi air, padang rumput dan ladang merupakan milik bersama.

Jika seorang anggota klan membunuh anggota klannya sendiri, maka tidak ada yang akan melindunginya. Jika dia melarikan diri, maka dia akan menjadi buronan (tarîd). Jika korbannya berasal dari luar klan, maka akan muncul tuntutan balas. Dan klan itu harus membayar dengan membunuh anggota keluarganya. Darah, menurut hukum primitif gurun harus dibayar dengan darah.

Malapetaka terbesar yang menimpa seorang Badui adalah ketika dia dipecat dari anggota suku. Sebab, setiap orang yang berada di luar satu kesatuan suku, hidupnya sudah lenyap. Posisinya seperti seorang buruan yang setiap waktu bisa dibunuh tanpa ada yang melindungi dan menjamin keselamatannya.

Hukum yang kejam ini justru membuat orang-orang Badui taat. Mereka tidak sembarangan menumpahkan darah. Pertumpahan darah terjadi hanya dalam kondisi terdesak.

Ghawz juga bertujuan mengurangi jumlah orang yang harus diberi makan dalam kondisi tertentu. Meskipun, tentu saja ini tidak serta merta menambah jumlah makanan yang ada.

Suku yang agak lemah dalam suatu perkampungan akan mendapat perlindungan dari suku yang lebih kuat apabila si lemah mau membayar upeti. Namun demikian, dasar ramah tamah terhadap tamu sangat melekat dalam diri orang Badui. Para jurnalis mencatat bahwa keramah-tamahan (dhiyafâh), ketabahan (hamasâh) dan kewibawaan lelaki (muru’ah) adalah nilai kesukuan tertinggi dalam tradisi Badui.

Kemurnian darah, kefasihan bahasa, keindahan puisi, kekuatan pedang dan kudanya serta kemuliaan keturunan (nasab) adalah hal yang sakral bagi orang Badui.

Keadaan alam yang sukar, melahirkan kesadaran dalam hati mereka untuk menjalankan kewajiban suci: beramah tamah terhadap tamu. Menolak tamu di tengah alam ganas berarti melakukan pelanggaran terhadap adat istiadat; mencederai kehormatan diri; mengabaikan ketaatan kepada Allah Sang Pelindung alam semesta.

Sifat klan menuntut kesetiaan yang tak dapat ditawar-tawar dan tak terbatas. Hal ini melahirkan Chauvinisme yang sangat mendalam di kalangan masyarakat Badui. Islam memanfaatkan tradisi suku ini untuk tujuan peperangan. Tentara dibagi-bagi berdasarkan pertalian suku. Perkampungan-perkampungan yang baru diduduki juga berdasarkan pertalian suku.

Orang-orang yang ditaklukkan diakui sebagai “pengikut” (bahasa Inggris: client) atau orang yang dilindungi. Sifat klan ini tidak pernah lenyap dari tabiat orang Arab, walaupun Islam sudah menyebar begitu luas. Sifat-sifat inilah salah satu yang akhirnya menyeret Islam ke dalam kejatuhannya setelah mengalami masa gemilang.

***

Seorang Arab pada umumnya dan seorang Badui pada khususnya adalah demokrat tulen. Seorang syeikh adalah orang tertua dalam suatu keluarga. Dialah pemimpin yang memberikan nasihat-nasihat sederhana; menunjukkan sifat ksatria dan keberanian; menyelesaikan persoalan-persoalan kehakiman, kemiliteran dan soal-soal lain yang berhubungan dengan kepentingan bersama (maslahat).

Namun demikian, seorang syeikh tidak memiliki kekuasaan mutlak. Dalam hal ini dia berunding dengan dewan keluarga yang terdiri dari penghulu-penghulu keluarga. Jabatan syeikh dipegangnya berdasarkan pemilihan anggota keluarga tesebut. Hal ini menjadikan suara semua orang sama rata. Gelar Raja (Malik) hampir tidak pernah dipakai oleh orang Badui.

Seorang wanita Badui, baik sebelum dan sesudah Islam, memiliki kebebasan yang terbatas. Mereka selalu dipingit. Wanita Badui hidup dalam keluarga yang terbiasa dengan poligami. Mereka sangat tunduk kepada tradisi perkawinan, di mana sang suamilah yang memiliki kekuasaan mutlak.

Sungguh pun demikian, wanita Badui memiliki kebebasan sendiri memilih suami atau meninggalkannya apabila dia diperlakukan tidak sebagaimana mestinya.


Catatan:

1) “Daerah Bulan Sabit yang Subur” (Fertile Crescent) adalah nama yang diberikan untuk daerah yang membentuk bulan sabit. Wilayah subur ini terdiri dari tanah alluvial, yaitu Lembah sungai di Mesopotamia (Efrat~Tigris) sampai ke Mesir (Nil). Sejak jaman dahulu, daerah-daerah ini memikat hati kaum Badui.


Literatur Rujukan:

Phillip K. Hitti, History Of The Arabs.Penerbit Serambi. Thn 2002.
Jalaluddin Rakhmat, Al- Mushthafa. Penerbit Simbiosa, Thn 2008.
Prof.Dr. Hamka, Sejarah Umat Islam, Pustaka Nasional Singapura, Thn 2006.
Karen Amstrong, Perang Suci, Penerbit Serambi, Thn 2007.


Foto lukisan:

Judul: The Arab Tale Teller
Karya: Horace Vernet
Tahun: 1833

Silahkan nilai tulisan ini

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