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Waktu Isra-Mikraj Nabi Muhammad

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IslamLib – Isra-Mikraj adalah peritiwa spiritual yang dialami Nabi Muhammad. Ia dipahami sebagai perjalanan Nabi dari Masjidil Haram di Mekah ke Masjidil Aqsha di Jerusalem, dan terus membubung menembus dinginnya langit menuju sebuah pucuk yang disebut Sidratul Muntaha.

Alkisah, ketika Rasulullah sedang tidur malam bersama para sahabatnya di Masjidil Haram tiba-tiba Jibril datang membangunkan dan membawanya untuk Isra-Mikraj. Thabathaba’i (Tafsir al-Mizan, Jilid XIII, hlm. 22) menyebut bahwa di antara Sahabat yang sedang bersama Nabi saat itu adalah Hamzah ibn Abdul Muththalib, Ja’far ibn Abi Thalib, dan Ali ibn Abi Thalib.

Namun, sebuah riwayat seperti dikutip Fakhr al-Din al-Razi dalam Mafatih al-Ghaib (Jilid X, Juz XX, hlm. 148) menyatakan bahwa Isra-Mikraj tak dimulai dari dalam Masjidil Haram, melainkan dari rumah Ummu Hani binti Abi Thalib. Yang lain lagi mengatakan bahwa start Isra-Mikraj adalah sebuah ruangan dalam rumah Abu Thalib.

Sejumlah literatur Islam menyebutkan bahwa Isra-Mikraj ditempuh hanya dalam satu malam. Perjalanan panjang ini dimulai habis isya’ dan rampung begitu fajar menyingsing. Demikian jauhnya jarak perjalanan ini, maka Aisyah (isteri Nabi) dan Muawiyah berpendapat bahwa Isra-Mikraj merupakan perjalanan ruhani dan bukan perjalanan fisik-jasmani.

Menurut Aisyah, ruh Nabi Muhammad bergerak membelah semesta untuk berjumpa dengan Tuhan, sementara tubuhnya bersemayam di bumi. Pendapat ini ditolak jumhur ulama yang mengatakan bahwa Isra-Mikraj melibatkan jasmani-ruhani Nabi Muhammad secara sekaligus. Tentu pendapat jumhur ulama ini tak mudah dikunyah akal sehat dan tak bisa dijelaskan secara saintifik.

Bagaimana mungkin benda material seperti tubuh manusia bisa berjalan lebih cepat dari gerak cahaya. Menurut teori Einstein, jika ada benda berjalan secepat cahaya, maka benda itu akan terurai dan hancur menjadi energi. Lalu jumhur ulama berkata, bahwa Isra-Mikraj bukan untuk difalsifikasi, melainkan untuk diimani.

Pertanyannya, kapan peristiwa Isra-Mikraj ini terjadi? Beberapa buku tarikh menjelaskan sejumlah riwayat berbeda perihal peristiwa itu. Pertama, ulama yang berpendapat bahwa peristiwa itu terjadi pada (diperkirakan hari Jum’at) 27 Rajab. Inilah pandangan paling populer di kalangan umat Islam.

Namun, sebagian yang lain berkata bahwa Isra’-Mikraj terjadi di awal (bukan di akhir) bulan Rajab. Kedua, menurut al-Harbi, sebagaimana dikutip al-Qurthubi dalamal-Jami’ li Ahkam al-Qur’an (Jilid V, hlm. 551), Isra-Mikraj terjadi pada 27 Rabi’ul Awwal.

Itu juga yang dikatakan al-Zuhri dan Urwah. Ibnu Abbas berpendapat bahwa Isra-Mikraj terjadi pada hari Senin, 12 Rabiul Awwal. Sebab, pada hari, tanggal dan bulan itulah Rasullah dilahirkan, diangkat menjadi nabi, di-Isra-Mikraj-kan, hijrah ke Madinah, dan meninggal dunia.

Ketiga, al-Sudi berpendapat bahwa Isra-Mikraj terjadi pada bulan Dzul Qa’dah. (Ibnu Katsir, al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Juz III, hlm. 155).

Bukan hanya bulan yang diperselisihkan, melainkan juga tahun dari peristiwa itu. Ada yang berpendapat bahwa Isra-Mikraj terjadi satu tahun sebelum Rasulullah hijrah ke Madinah.

Yang lain berkata bahwa Isra-Mikraj diperkirakan terjadi 18 bulan sebelum peristiwa hijrah. Sementara yang lain lagi berkesimpulan bahwa Isra-Mikraj terjadi ketika Khadijah masih hidup.

Menurut Yunus ibn Bukair, pasca Isra-Mikraj, Khadijah masih sempat melaksanakan shalat. Ini karena Isra-Mikraj terjadi pada tahun kelima dari kenabian, beberapa bulan sebelum Khadijah meninggal dunia. Bahkan, seperti dikutip Thabathabai (hlm. 30), Ibnu Abbas berkata bahwa Isra-Mikraj terjadi pada tahun kedua dari kenabian.

Intinya, ada beragam pendapat. Yang satu berkata tahun ketiga kenabian. Yang lain mengatakan tahun kelima kenabian; tahun keenam kenabian; 10 tahun 3 bulan dari kenabian; 12 tahun dari kenabian; 1 tahun 5 bulan sebelum hijrah; 1 tahun 3 bulan sebelum hijrah; 6 bulan sebelum hijrah.

Kenapa perselisihan seperti ini terjadi? Satu, ketika Isra-Mikraj terjadi tak ada orang yang mencatat dan mendokumentasikannya secara persis. Rasulullah pun dikisahkan tak bisa membaca dan menulis.

Soal hari, tanggal, bulan, dan tahun peristiwa Isra-Mikraj di atas sepenuhnya didasarkan pada ingatan para Sahabat, dan bukan pada data rekaman-tertulis yang otentik.

Dua, penyusunan kalender Islam pada saat Isra-Mikraj itu belum terumuskan. Dengan demikian, semua soal di sekitar Isra-Mikraj serba tak pasti, misterius, dan tak mudah diverifikasi.

Bagi sebagian besar umat Islam, hanya satu yang pasti; bahwa Isra-Mikraj nyata terjadi dan dari situ shalat disyariatkan. Tentang bagaimana terjadinya dan kapan berlangsungnya, para ulama dan sejarawan tak melahirkan sebuah konsensus. Wallahu A’lam Bis Shawab.

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