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Ibn Khaldun [Foto: flickr.com]
Ibn Khaldun [Foto: flickr.com]

Sekilas Humanisme Islam

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IslamLib – Humanisme dalam banyak literatur diungkapkan, berasal dari kata umanista dari bahasa Latin atau umanesimo dari bahasa Italia (Campana, 1946). Dua kata tersebut kini berarti manusia atau human.

Lorens Bagus (2005) mendefinisikan humanisme sebagai aliran filsafat yang menganggap individu rasional sebagai nilai paling tinggi dan sumber nilai terakhir untuk memupuk perkembangan kreatif dan moral manusia secara rasional dan tanpa acuan dari konsep-konsep adikodrati.

Pengertian humanisme pada dasarnya tidak tunggal. Di satu sisi, ia berarti gerakan untuk menghidupkan ilmu-ilmu kemanusiaan atau biasa disebut sebagai “humaniora”. Di sisi lain, ia berarti sebuah gerakan filsafat yang menekankan sentralitas manusia (Luthfi Assyaukanie, 2009). Esai ini tentunya fokus pada sisi kedua meski sisi pertama belum tentu terabaikan.

Humanisme dalam tradisi ilmiah Islam memiliki padanan kata yang sungguh menarik: al-insaniyyah. Kata “insan” yang sudah dibakukan ke dalam bahasa Indonesia merupakan derivasi dari kata “al-uns” yang berarti akal-budi—sebuah terjemahan yang diambil dari filsafat etika Ibn Miskawayh dalam karyanya berjudul Tahdzib al-Akhlaq.

Berbeda dari tradisi ilmiah yang berkembang di Eropa, humanisme Islam justru lahir dari persinggungannya dengan teologi dan metafisika. Setiap cabang ilmu yang berkembang di dunia Islam selalu memiliki latar belakang atau pendasaran teologis dari Kitab Suci.

Setiap filsuf, teolog, ahli fikih, ahli tafsir dalam merumuskan pikiran-pikiran mereka pasti berangkat dari kebutuhan akan peran manusia sebagai pusat semesta. Salah satu contoh sederhanayan adalah ditemukannya tanda baca dalam membaca Alquran yang melahirkan studi-studi humaniora atau adabiyyah (yang dikenal dengan Fakultas Adab di universitas Islam).

Dalam ilmu fikih misalnya kita bisa menemukan sebuah perangkat yang dirumuskan al-Syafi’i untuk menentukan sebuah pendasaran hukum yang dikenal sebagai ushul al-fiqh (dasar-dasar ketentuan hukum). Di dalamnya kita banyak menemukan kaidah-kaidah logis dalam menentukan sebuah kebijakan.

Salah satu kaidah yang begitu populer dalam ushul al-fiqh adalah “al-hukmu yaduru ma’al ‘illati wujudan wa ‘adaman”. Artinya, ada atau tidaknya sebuah ketentuan hukum ditinjau dari keadaannya atau sebab-sebab hukum tersebut berlaku (‘illatul hukmi).

Kaidah ini membuat ketentuan hukum yang berlaku menjadi begitu lentur ketika undang-undang dalam sebuah negara memang bertentangan dengan semangat zaman atau kebutuhan masyarakat setempat.

Dalam teologi, kita bisa menemukan bagaimana para teolog menemukan konsep-konsep keadilan Tuhan yang sebenarnya terkait dengan kehidupan manusia. Ketika keadilan Tuhan telah “dirumuskan”, setiap manusia dalam pandangan mereka diharapkan hidup dalam kebaikan.

Contoh yang paling konkret adalah apa yang coba dilakukan kelompok Muktazilah. Mereka pada hakikatnya berusaha membawa tradisi filsafat yang mengutamakan kebebasan manusia sebagai ketentuan di Hari Akhir. Bagi mereka, hidup manusia bebas sepenuhnya dari intervensi Tuhan. Lihat Teologi Rasional Muktazilah di sini.

Dalam filsafat, humanisme mendapatkan tempatnya yang paling lengkap. Dimulai dari al-Kindi yang menulis al-Falsafah al-Ula sampai Ibn Rusyd yang memiliki proyek rasionalisme untuk dunia Islam, manusia sebagai pusat semesta menjadi pembahasan utama.

Kita bisa memahami bagaimana Ibn Thufayl menulis roman filsafatnya yang kental dengan pendekatan metafisika tanpa menafikan peran manusia sebagai pusatnya dalam Hayy bin Haqzhan (Si Hidup Anak Si Sadar). Di dalamnya, Ibn Thufayl berusaha menyakinkan kita bahwa kebenaran bisa didapatkan melalui akal meski kita hanya berinteraksi dengan seekor rusa dan binatang lain.

Ibn Rusyd seorang filsuf rasionalis sejati pernah berujar dalam Fashlul Maqal-nya bahwa jika akal dan wahyu berbenturan, wahyu harus ditafsirkan agar sesuai dengan pemahaman akal (fa in kana muwafiqan fa la qawla hunalika, wa in kana mukhalifan thuliba hunalika ta’wiluhu).

Dalam teori sosial, kita bisa membaca karya Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddimah. Di dalamnya ia berbicara tentang berbagai fenomena masyarakat, teori ekonomi, pajak dan sebagainya yang menempatkan manusia sebagai pusat kajiannya.

Sayangnya perkembangan filsafat (atau humanisme) menjadi tidak menarik sekarang karena pembahasannya justru kembali ke soal-soal metafisika yang cenderung abstrak, tidak menjadikan manusia sebagai pusat kajian. Kita bisa membacanya dari karya-karya Suhrawardi yang membahas mahiyah (esensi) dan Mulla Shadra yang tidak bisa move on dari persoalam wujud (being).

Karena itu, filsafat yang berkembang di dunia Islam sekarang adalah filsafat yang bercampur dengan mistisisme (tashawwuf). Saya tidak bisa membayangkan betapa pusingnya kita memikirkan empat perjalanan manusia yang begitu abstrak menuju Sang Pencipta. Sementara itu, persoalan kemunduran umat Islam sekarang begitu nyata.

Dalam perkembangan tradisi ilmiah Islam, filsafat sudah mengalami reduksi besar-besaran. Setiap karya yang lahir dari pemikir Islam belum tentu merupakan sebuah karya filsafat. Alasannya adalah istilah “filsafat” yang kini selalu diidentikkan dengan soal-soal yang abstrak sebagaimana yang tercermin dalam filsafat Suhrawardi dan Mulla Shadra.

Hal ini menyebabkan karya-karya monumental dari para pemikir Islam modern tidak pernah dianggap sebagai karya-karya filsafat. Padahal, ada beberapa tokoh yang layak disebut sebagai para filsuf. Di antaranya Abduh, Ali Abdur Raziq dan tokoh-tokoh kontemporer sekarang.

Kalau kita ingin mengembalikan humanisme yang dulu pernah berkembang dalam tradisi ilmiah Islam, kita perlu mengembalikan filsafat yang menempatkan manusia sebagai pusat kajiannya. Kita perlu menghidupkan kembali proyek rasionalisme Ibn Rusyd dan mengembangkan kembali teori-teori sosial Ibn Khaldun.

Silahkan nilai tulisan ini

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