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Al-Mu'tazila (Foto: deviantart.net)
Al-Mu'tazila (Foto: deviantart.net)

Teologi Rasional Muktazilah

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IslamLib – Dalam membaca sejarah Islam, kita harus membedakan Islam sebagai “doktrin” dari Islam sebagai “peradaban” (Nurcholish Madjid, 1992). Hal ini penting untuk disimak agar kita tidak terjebak ke dalam ideologi yang tertanam dalam benak kita sejak awal. Dengan begitu, kita bisa memahami perkembangan berbagai ilmu dalam sejarah Islam dengan lebih objektif tanpa menafikan hal-hal yang mungkin mencederainya.

Islam sebagai “doktrin” adalah Islam yang dipahami sebagai sebuah agama yang sempurna. Meski ada berbagai perbedaan dalam pemahaman ajaran-ajarannya, Islam tetap diakui sebagai agama yang sempurna; Islam sebagai “peradaban” adalah Islam yang di dalamnya terdapat aspek-aspek sejarah yang memicu adanya berbagai konflik kepentingan di antara semua aliran.

Dengan demikian, kita tidak bisa menafikan adanya perang saudara, pertumpahan darah, dan hal-hal terkait dalam sejarah (kelam) Islam berdasarkan pemahaman Islam sebagai “peradaban”.

Dua pengertian tentang Islam di atas dengan sengaja dikemukakan agar kita bisa memberikan pembahasan tentang Muktazilah batasan yang kuat dalam pemaparan paham-pahamnya. Dengan kata lain, kita juga bisa menggunakan pengertian Muktazilah sebagai “doktrin” dan Muktazilah sebagai “peradaban”.

Banyak orang cenderung menolak paham aliran tersebut karena menganggap posisi akal lebih dominan dibandingkan dengan wahyu tanpa mempelajari basis-basis argumentasi yang mereka gunakan. Karena itu, kajian terhadap pemikiran-pemikiran Muktazilah harus dihidupkan kembali agar para pengkaji tidak menafikan pentingnya basis-basis argumentasi yang telah dibangun Washil b. ‘Atha’ dan para muridnya.

Sejarah Muktazilah

Asy-Syahrastani dalam al-Milal wa al-Nihal menyebutkan bahwa kelompok “pemuja” akal ini muncul di Bashrah pada abad ke-2 H., antara tahun 105-110 H., tepatnya di masa pemerintahan ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan dan Hisyam b. ‘Abd al-Malik.

Pelopornya adalah Washil b. ‘Atha’ (80-131 H.), seorang murid al-Hasan al-Bashri. Di dalam menyebarkan ajarannya, ia didukung oleh Amr b. ‘Ubayd setelah mereka bersepakat dalam pemikiran-pemikiran tentang konsep ketuhanan yang rasional.

Seiring dengan bergulirnya waktu, Muktazilah semakin berkembang dengan sekian banyak sektenya. Mereka bahkan mendalami buku-buku filsafat yang tersebar di masa pemerintahan al-Ma’mun. Sejak saat itu, manhaj mereka benar-benar diwarnai corak pemikiran filosofis yang berorientasi pada akal.

Oleh karena itu, tidak aneh bila akal lebih didahulukan dari syariat dan akal sebagai kata pemutus dalam segala hal bagi mereka. Bila syariat bertentangan dengan akal, sungguh syariat tersebut harus dibuang atau ditakwil (ta’wil).

Muktazilah secara etimologis berarti orang yang memisahkan diri. Sebutan ini mempunyai suatu kronologi yang tidak bisa dipisahkan dengan sosok al-Hasan al-Bashri.

Sebagaimana yang dicatat Asy-Syahrastani, seorang laki-laki pada suatu hari datang kepada al-Hasan al-Bashri dan berkata: “Wahai imam dalam agama, telah muncul di zaman kita ini kelompok yang mengkafirkan pelaku dosa besar (di bawah dosa syirik). Dosa tersebut diyakini sebagai suatu kekafiran yang dapat mengeluarkan pelakunya dari agama, mereka adalah kaum Khawarij.”

“Sedangkan, kelompok yang lainnya sangat toleran terhadap pelaku dosa besar (di bawah dosa syirik), dan dosa tersebut tidak berpengaruh terhadap keimanan karena dalam madzhab mereka, suatu amalan bukanlah rukun dari keimanan dan kemaksiatan tidak berpengaruh terhadap keimanan sebagaimana ketaatan tidak berpengaruh terhadap kekafiran, mereka adalah Murji’ah umat ini. Bagaimanakah pendapatmu dalam permasalahan ini agar kami bisa menjadikannya sebagai prinsip (dalam beragama)?” lanjutnya.

Al-Hasan al-Bashri pun berpikir sejenak dalam permasalahan tersebut. Sebelum ia menjawab, tiba-tiba Washil berseloroh: “Menurutku, pelaku dosa besar bukan seorang beriman, namun ia juga tidak kafir, bahkan ia berada pada suatu keadaan di antara dua keadaan, tidak beriman dan juga tidak kafir.”

Lalu ia berdiri dan duduk menyendiri di salah satu tiang masjid sambil tetap menyatakan pendapatnya tersebut kepada murid-murid al-Hasan al-Bashri lainnya. Maka, al-Hasan al-Bashrī berkata: “Washil telah memisahkan diri dari kita.”

Dengan demikian, Wāshil dan para pengikutnya disebut dengan Muktazilah. Meski begitu, pertanyaan itu pun akhirnya dijawab oleh al-Hasan al-Bashri: “Sesungguhnya pelaku dosa besar (di bawah dosa syirik) adalah seorang beriman yang imannya tidak sempurna. Karena keimanannya, ia masih disebut beriman dan karena dosa besarnya, ia disebut fasiq (dan keimanannya pun menjadi tidak sempurna).”

Sebenarnya Washil dan para pengikutnya menamakan mereka sendiri dengan Ahlu ‘l-‘Adli wa al-Tawhid. Bagi mereka, keadilan dan tauhid adalah dua konsep yang tak bisa ditawar. Dua konsep tersebut bersifat universal yang berlaku bagi setiap Muslim.

Karena itu, Allah memberikan manusia akal—sebagai konsekuensi logis dari keadilan—untuk memilih antara kebaikan dan keburukan yang pada akhirnya Tuhan yang akan menentukan posisi orang tersebut di surga atau di neraka.

Teologi Rasional

Teologi rasional Muktazilah diperkenalkan pertama kali oleh Harun Nasution. Ia mencoba menyajikan kembali “mutiara” yang hilang dari pemikiran Islam (Indonesia). Menurut Harun (1986), teologi Muktazilah adalah embrio teologi rasional dan teologi liberal dalam Islam.

Pemikiran ini berbeda dari teologi (fatalistik) Asy’ariyah yang selama ini membentuk masyarakat tradisional. Maka, teologi Asy’ariyah harus diganti dengan teologi Muktazilah untuk memodernisasi umat.

Dari sekian ajaran Muktazilah, al-ushul al-khamsah (asas lima) paling relevan untuk kita bincangkan. Sebab, pembahasan ini yang paling menonjol dari sekian banyak diskursus-diskursus teologis yang muncul dalam kelompok ini. Untuk itu, Harun (1986) menulis:

Demikianlah ajaran-ajaran yang ditinggalkan Wasil. Dua dari ajaran-ajaran tersebut yaitu posisi menengah dan peniadaan sifat-sifat Tuhan, kemudian merupakan bahagian integral dari al-Usul al-Khamsah atau pancasila Mu’tazilah.

Ketiga sila lainnya ialah al-‘adl; keadilan Tuhan, al-wa’d wa al-wa’id, janji baik dan ancaman dan al-amr bi al-ma’ruf wa al-nahy ‘an al-munkar, memerintah orang untuk berbuat baik dan melarang orang berbuat jahat wajib dijalankan, kalau perlu dengan kekerasan.

Secara umum, maksud pemikiran tentang teologi rasional adalah bahwa kita harus mempergunakan rasio kita dalam menyikapi masalah. Namun, itu tidak berarti menyepelekan wahyu. Di dalam Alquran, ada dua bentuk kandungan: qath’i (pasti) dan zhanni (samar).

Ayat-ayat qath’i adalah kandungan yang sudah jelas sehingga tidak lagi dibutuhkan interpretasi; zhanni adalah kandungan di dalam Alquran yang masih belum jelas sehingga menimbulkan interpretasi yang berlainan. Di sini dibutuhkan akal yang dapat berpikir tentang semua hal tersebut.

Dalam hal ini, keabsolutan wahyu sering dipertentangkan dengan kerelatifan akal. Muktazilah tentunya memosisikan akal di atas wahyu, dan al-ushul al-khamsah adalah produk kreativitas akal mereka.

Bagi Muktazilah, Tuhan adalah zat yang tidak bisa disifati. Jika Tuhan tetap disifati, sifat-sifat yang melekat kepada-Nya akan membatasi Tuhan sendiri karena Ia Maha Kuasa yang tidak bisa diberikan predikat. Dalam hal ini, mereka mencoba membebaskan Tuhan dari berbagai predikat yang diberikan kelompok-kelompok teologi lain—sebagai konsekuensi logis dari paham tauhid mereka.

Tauhid dan nafy al-shifah (menafikan sifat) selalu terkait. Menurut Washil, siapa yang mengakui adanya sifat qadim pada zat Tuhan maka ia mengakui adanya dua Tuhan. Pendapat ini ia kemukakan setelah belajar buku-buku filsafat dan berbagai pendapat para filsuf. Ia berkesimpulan bahwa sifat Tuhan itu tidak ada seperti keadaan Tuhan Maha Mengetahui dan lain sebagainya. Menurutnya, sifat Tuhan itu adalah zat-Nya pada dasarnya.

Dalam hal keadilan Tuhan, Muktazilah berpendapat bahwa Tuhan berkuasa untuk bersikap zalim, namun itu mustahil baginya karena itu menyebabkan tidak sempurnanya kekuasaan Tuhan.

Alasannya bahwa kezaliman hanya dilakukan oleh orang yang mempunyai cacad dan berhajat atau orang yang tidak mempunyai pengetahuan (jahil). Sedangkan, cacad dan tidak mempunyai pengetahua bertentangan dengan kekuasaan Tuhan.

Dalam hal janji dan ancaman (al-wa’d-u wa al-wa’id), Tuhan tidak akan adil jika Ia tidak memberi orang yang berbuat baik pahala dan orang berbuat jahat hukuman. Konsep keadilan Tuhan berperan dalam hal ini. Keadilan meniscayakan orang yang bersalah diberi hukuman dan orang yang berbuat baik diberi upah sebagaimana keadilan Tuhan.

Selanjutnya tentang tempat di antara dua tempat (al-manzilah bayna al-manzilatayn). Konsep ini merupakan konsep awal pemikiran Muktazilah yang dikemukakan Washil tentang orang yang berdosa besar. Sebagaimana yang dicatat al-Syahrastani, Washil ibn Atha mengemukakan alasan bahwa iman terdiri dari unsur-unsur kebaikan. Apabila semuanya lengkap dinamakan orang beriman yang terpuji.

Sebaliknya orang munafik adalah unsur imannya kurang, ia tidak dapat dikatakan orang yang terpuji dan beriman dan juga tidak dapat dikatakan orang yang celaka yang kafir. Karena itu persaksiannya dan sebagian perbuatan baiknya masih ada pada dirinya dan ini tidak dapat dipungkiri.

Namun apabila ia meninggal sedang ia telah melakukan dosa besar dan tidak bertobat, maka ia termasuk penghuni neraka yang kekal. Karena di akhirat itu hanya ada dua kelompok; penghuni neraka dan penghuni surga, namun siksa yang dikenakan kepadanya kebih ringan dari siksa yang diderita orang yang kafir.

Dalam hal al-amru bi al-ma’ruf wa al-nahyu ‘ani al-munkar, mereka memiliki keyakinan tersendiri. Bagi mereka, kejahatan/kemungkaran harus diberantas dengan cara apa pun sesuai dengan sabda Nabi Muhammad saw. Hal ini yang memicu paham Muktazilah menjadi mazhab resmi negara pada masa pemerintahan al-Mutawakkil.

Sebagai konsekuensi logis, mazhab resmi tersebut harus diikuti oleh umat Islam ketika itu. Hal ini juga yang menyebabkan paham para “pemuja” akal ini mengalami sejarah kelam, bahkan paham mereka tidak lagi menjadi populer saat ini.

Relevansi Paham Muktazilah

Sebagai bahan kritik, kita harus mengambil metode (rasional) yang digunakan Muktazilah untuk mengontekstualisasikan paham-paham mereka agar menjadi relevan dengan perkembangan umat Islam sekarang. Metode menjadi penting karena itulah satu-satunya cara untuk “membumikan” konsep-konsep teologis dan menjadikannya sebagai agen perubahan sosial bagi umat Islam.

Berdasarkan konsep al-amru bi al-ma’ruf wa al-nahyu ‘ani al-munkar, mereka berani melakukan apa pun. Bila perlu, mereka melakukan kekerasan. Hal ini tentunya tidak dapat diterapkan lagi sekarang karena sesuatu yang mungkar bagi kita mungkin saja tidak bagi yang lain.

Di samping itu, peran akal sudah sepatutnya menjadi dominan dalam perkembangan dunia sekarang. Di atas itu semua, paham Muktazilah bagaikan “mutiara” hilang yang harus ditemukan kembali.

Silahkan nilai tulisan ini

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