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Wacana Non-Muslim Masuk Surga

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IslamLib – Surga dalam bahasa Arab disebut jannah. Ia dipahami sebagai tempat orang-orang terpilih mendapatkan kenikmatan puncak atas segala amal baik yang dikerjakannya ketika hidup di dunia. Surga adalah imbalan Tuhan atas hamba-hamba-Nya yang beriman dan yang melakukan perbuatan-perbuatan baik. Di surga, Tuhan akan memberikan kesenangan dan kenikmatan.

Sebuah hadits riwayat Muslim menggambarkan kenikmatan surga itu dengan kenikmatan yang tak pernah terlihat oleh mata, tak terdengar oleh telinga, dan tak pernah terbayang dalam imajinasi dan pikiran manusia (ma la ‘ayn ra’at wa la udzun sami’at wa la khatara ‘ala qalbi basyar). Seluruh perbendaharaan kata tak memadai untuk menggambarkan kenikmatan-kenikmatan surga itu.

Al-Qur’an menjelaskan, di dalam surga segala kebutuhan dan keinginan manusia akan dipenuhi. Di surga ada bidadari-bidadari cantik (khayratun hisan), minuman-minuman menyegarkan, dan semua jenis buah-buahan (min kulli fâqihatin). Di bagian bawah surga itu terdapat aliran sungai dengan air yang jernih. Bahkan ada sebuah mitologi bahwa beberapa air sungai di bumi berasal dari surga.

Khathib al-Syarbini dalam kitab al-Iqna` (hlm. 5) menjelaskan, air sungai Nil, sungai Gangga, dan Amu Ardaya (Oxus) dialirkan dari surga. Bajuri dalam kitab Hasyiyah al-Bajuri (Juz I, hlm. 4) menyebutkan sungai Furat (Eufrat) dan Dajlah (Tigris) berasal dari Sidratul Muntaha.

Apa yang dikemukakan Khathib al-Syarbini dan Bajuri itu sebuah mitologi. Ia tak didukung fakta, sumber air sungai adalah dalam perut bumi sendiri dan bukan di luarnya. Di samping itu, tak ada dalil Al-Qur’an dan al-Hadits yang mendukung pernyataan tersebut.

Namun, terlepas dari itu, rasanya semua agama menjanjikan surga kepada umatnya. Bukan hanya Islam, agama lain pun seperti Kristen dan Yahudi turut mengkampanyekan surga kepada umat masing-masing.

Dalam Injil Matius 5:19 disebutkan, “siapa yang melakukan dan mengajarkan segala perintah-perintah hukum Taurat, ia akan menduduki tempat yang tinggi di dalam Kerajaan Sorga. “Berbahagialah orang yang miskin di hadapan Allah, karena merekalah yang empunya kerajaan sorga”. (Matius 5:3)

Dalam Al-Qur’an (al-Hajj [22]: 23) disebutkan, “sesungguhnya Allah akan memasukkan orang yang beriman dan mengerjakan amal saleh ke dalam surga-surga yang di bawahnya mengalir sungai-sungai”.

Allah juga berfirman, “Barangsiapa taat kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya, niscaya Allah akan memasukkannya ke dalam surga yang mengalir di dalamnya sungai-sungai, sedang mereka kekal di dalamnya dan itulah kemenangan yang besar” (QS, al-Nisa’ [4]: 13-14).

Pertanyaannya, apakah surga itu hanya milik umat agama tertentu? Tidak sedikit umat beragama mengklaim bahwa surga hanya kepunyaan mereka semata. Tempat yang layak bagi orang di luar kelompoknya adalah neraka.

Sebagian orang Yahudi pernah berkata bahwa hanya orang-orang Yahudi yang akan masuk surga. Demikian juga orang Kristen; sebagian mereka berpendapat bahwa hanya orang Kristen yang masuk surga. Pandangan eksklusif ini ditentang al-Qur’an.

Allah berfirman, “Mereka (sebagian Yahudi dan Nashrani) berkata, “sekali-kali tidak akan masuk surga kecuali orang-orang Yahudi atau Nashrani”. Demikian itu hanyalah angan-angan kosong mereka saja. Katakanlah, “tunjukkanlah bukti kebenaranmu jika kamu adalah orang yang benar”.

“Bahkan barangsiapa yang menyerahkan diri kepada Allah, sedang ia berbuat kebajikan, maka baginya pahala pada sisi Tuhannya dan tidak ada kekhawatiran terhadap mereka dan tidak (pula) mereka bersedih hati” (QS, al-Baqarah [2]: 111-112).

Muhammad Nawawi al-Jawi menjelaskan bahwa klaim eksklusif itu dikemukakan orang-orang Yahudi Madinah dan orang-orang Nashrani Najran. Nawawi al-Jawi dalam Marah Labidz, (Juz I, hlm. 30) menafsirkan ayat tersebut sebagai berikut, “Orang-orang Yahudi Madinah berkata bahwa yang masuk surga hanya orang-orang Yahudi. Tak ada agama selain agama Yahudi.

Orang-orang Nashrani Najran juga berkata bahwa yang masuk surga hanyalah orang-orang Nashrani. Tak ada agama selain agama Nashrani. Sama sekali tidak. Selain mereka masuk surga. Yaitu orang-orang yang tulus kepada Allah dengan tidak menyekutukan-Nya, berbuat baik dalam semua tindakannya. Baginya adalah pahala yang telah dijanjikan Tuhan-Nya di dalam surga”

Dalam mengomentari ayat di atas, Ibn Katsir dan al-Zamakhsyari menyatakan bahwa yang akan masuk surga itu adalah orang yang tulus ikhlas hanya kepada Tuhan serta tidak menyekutukan-Nya. Pandangan senada dikemukakan al-Thabari bahwa “man aslama” dalam ayat itu berarti orang-orang yang tunduk-taat hanya kepada Allah.

Dengan penjelasan ini sudah cukup untuk menyatakan bahwa orang yang masuk surga tidak harus orang beragama Yahudi atau Kristen atau Islam. Siapa saja di antara umat manusia yang tunduk hanya kepada Allah dan melakukan perbuatan-perbuatan baik, maka ia akan dimasukkan ke dalam surga. Yang tunduk kepada Allah itu bisa beragama Islam, Kristen, Yahudi, dan sebagainya.

Namun, Ibn Katsir memberikan catatan bahwa yang dimaksud dengan kata “wa huwa muhsin” dalam ayat tersebut berarti orang yang mengikuti Nabi Muhammad. Sebab, menurutnya, sebuah amal bisa diterima jika memenuhi dua persyaratan, yaitu tulus-ikhlas karena Allah dan sesuai atau cocok dengan syari`at (Nabi Muhammad). Jika seseorang hanya tulus ikhlas, tapi amalnya tak sesuai dengan syari`at Nabi Muhammad, maka tak dapat diterima.

Sebagai sebuah tafsir, apa yang dikemukakan Ibn Katsir tersebut adalah sah. Namun, penting dikemukakan, bahwa menafsirkan “wa huwa muhsin” dengan orang yang mengikuti Nabi Muhammad adalah tafsir terjauh di luar jangkauan makna leksikal dan semantik kata itu. Karena itu, selain Ibn Katsir, tak mudah ditemukan dari penafsir-penafsir lain yang mengartikan “wa huwa muhsin” dengan mengikuti syari`at Nabi Muhammad.

Terkait dengan kata “aslama” tersebut, di ayat al-Qur’an (Ali `Imran [3]: 19) lain Allah berfirman, “inna al-din ‘inda Allah al-islam” (agama di sisi Allah adalah al-islam). Muhammad Nawawi al-Jawi menafsirkan “al-islam” dalam ayat tersebut sebagai tauhid dan ketundukan kepada syari`at-syari`at yang diturunkan Allah kepada para nabinya. Ayat ini, menurut Nawawi al-Jawi, turun untuk menepis klaim orang-orang Yahudi dan orang-orang Nashrani bahwa hanya agama dirinya yang diakui Allah.

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