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Gedung MUI [Foto: islamlib.com/Evi]
Gedung MUI [Foto: islamlib.com/Evi]

Sertifikasi Halal yang Makin Haram

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Sebagai muslim saya berhak mendapatkan informasi sejelas-jelasnya tentang makanan yang saya konsumsi dan kehalalannya. Di sini sertifikasi halal menemukan argumennya bahwa ia merupakan bagian dari hak perlindungan konsumen yang harus dipenuhi, meski untuk keperluan tersebut, konsumen harus membayar lebih mahal.

Memang, di mana-mana makanan kosher selalu lebih mahal dibanding makanan non-kosher. Namun persoalannya adalah, apakah hak untuk mendapatkan informasi tersebut begitu mendesak? Menurut saya tidak. Mengapa? Karena dalam praktiknya, setiap orang bisa melindungi diri dari mengkonsumsi makanan yang tidak halal.

Mengenai makanan, Islam sebenarnya memberi banyak kemudahan. Salah satu kemudahan yang diberikan adalah kita tidak perlu bertanya tentang sesuatu yang tidak perlu, apalagi kalau jawabannya nanti akan menyusahkan kita.

Jadi, makan saja makanan yang tersaji di hadapan kita apalagi kalau makanan tersebut jelas halalnya. Ini prinsip ajaran Islam yang ditarik dari rasionalitas publik bahwa pada dasarnya masyarakat memiliki pengetahuan yang memadai atas berbagai hal yang terjadi dalam kehidupan mereka, dan pengetahuan itulah yang membimbing mereka untuk memutuskan dan bertindak.

Jadi ketika kita masuk ke warung Padang, warung Betawi, warung Surabaya, dan lain sebagainya, kita dibimbing oleh pengetahuan ini. Kita tidak perlu mengajukan pertanyaan bodoh seperti apakah rendang, empal, atau rawon yang disajikan terbuat dari daging sapi atau babi.

Atas dasar ini kita bisa mengatakan sertifikasi halal atas makanan tradisional yang secara common sense tidak diragukan kehalalannya, tidak diperlukan. Sertifikasi halal atas makanan-makanan ini hanya akan memberatkan konsumen dan pengusaha.

Pada sisi lain, sertifikasi halal yang diterapkan secara mutlak atas semua jenis makanan mencerminkan sesat pikir kaum Muslim yang mendikotomikan urusan akhirat dan dunia. Isu halal dianggap masalah akhirat dan menjadi masalah utama; sementara isu lain seperti kesehatan adalah urusan dunia, menjadi nomor sekian.

Kalau mau jujur, isu kesehatan jauh lebih penting dan mendesak. Bukankah banyak orang yang keracunan bahkan mati setelah mengkonsumsi makanan dan minuman tertentu?

Lalu, kapan labelisasi halal diperlukan? Kehalalan sebuah makanan diperlukan ketika orang ragu dengan makanan yang ada, dan itu terjadi ketika ia berada di negeri antah berantah.

Ketika kita jalan-jalan di kota New York dan masuk Chinese restaurant, kita sering bertanya dalam hati apakah makanan yang ditawarkan halal atau tidak. Pertanyaan atau keraguan ini wajar dan mendesak untuk dijawab.

Untuk mengatasi persoalan ini, orang punya kiat tersendiri, dan kiat itu saya lakukan. Saya mengajukan pertanyaan sederhana kepada pelayan. “No pork?” Bila ia menjawab “no”, maka saya pun memesan makanan tersebut. Bila menjawab “yes”, saya memesan yang lain. Sederhana.

Persoalan sederhana bagi seseorang ternyata tidak pernah sederhana bagi orang lain. Sebagian orang beranggapan selidik seperti yang saya lakukan tidak cukup. Alasannya, bisa saja menu yang dipesan tidak mengandung babi, namun bagaimana dengan minyaknya, bumbunya, wajannya, dan seterusnya.

Di Indonesia banyak orang yang menganggap bahwa makanan yang menurut anggapan publik halal belum tentu halal sebelum ada badan yang berwenang yang menyatakan kehalalannya. Maka sertifikasi halal diperlukan.

Seperti saya katakan, isu ini bisa dilihat sebagai upaya perlindungan hak konsumen. Hanya persoalannya, makanan jenis apa yang harus disertifikasi, dan lembaga mana yang melakukannya.

Seperti juga saya katakan, makanan tradisional yang sudah tidak diragukan lagi kehalalannya tidak perlu disertifikasi. Makanan luar barangkali bisa, itu pun kalau mereka mau. Resto Cina, Jepang, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam yang ingin menarik konsumen Muslim yang masih ragu boleh meminta sertifikasi.

Jadi secara bisnis, sertifikasi halal menguntungkan karena resto-resto luar mendapat pelanggan baru dalam jumlah besar. Namun siapa yang harus melakukan?

Seperti kita tahu, MUI (Majlis Ulama Indonesia) diberi monopoli untuk menentukan apakah sebuah produk halal atau haram, sehingga boleh atau tidak boleh dikonsumsi oleh kaum Muslim.

Di sinilah keharaman sertifikasi yang saya maksud dalam judul tulisan ini. Bagi saya sertifikasi hanya boleh dilakukan oleh negara karena ini menyangkut ruang publik. Cuma, karena urusan halal masuk dalam otoritas ulama, negara harus kerja sama dengan ulama. Ulama yang buat fatwa, negara yang mensertifikasi.

Namun yang terjadi sekarang adalah MUI melakukan keduanya, mereka buat fatwa, mereka juga yang sertifikasi. Ini jelas melanggar prinsip bahwa hanya negara yang punya otoritas untuk mengatur kehidupan publik.

Keharaman kedua, monopoli MUI atas sertifikasi halal menjadikan lembaga ini penuh persaingan, perpecahan. Ini semua karena besarnya uang yang didapatkan dari sertifikasi.

Dulu pada masa Orde Baru, MUI adalah mitra, dan didanai oleh, pemerintah untuk mensyahkan berbagai kebijakan negara. Sejak Reformasi, dana ini berkurang drastis. Namun dengan sertifikasi, MUI mendapatkan dana yang cukup besar untuk membiaya berbagai kegiatannya. Di sinilah persoalan bermula.

Tercatat MUI DKI Jakarta terpecah menjadi dua, satu berkantor di Istiqlal, satu lagi di Islamic Center Kramat Tunggak. Lucunya lagi, keduanya melakukan sertifikasi atas berbagai produk yang ada.

Selain itu, MUI pun rentan dengan korupsi. Beberapa tahun yang lalu, tentu kita masih ingat ketika sejumlah pengurus MUI ditengarai menerima suap dari pengusaha sapi Australia yang berupaya memasuki pasar Indonesia.

Keharaman ketiga adalah MUI memperluas labelisasi halal, tidak saja kepada makanan dan minuman, tapi juga kepada yang sesuatu yang bendawi.

Status halal pada awalnya tersemat kepada berbagai jenis makanan dan minuman, yang boleh dikonsumsi oleh kaum Muslim. Contoh, sapi yang disembelih dengan cara yang dibenarkan oleh syariat, halal untuk dikonsumsi, dst.

Maka tidak relevan menyematkan status halal kepada yang non-makanan dan non-minuman. Penyematan halal untuk obat-obatan masih diperdebatkan. Namun penyematan halal untuk sesuatu yang bendawi seperti pakaian, misalnya, sama sekali tidak relevan dan ngawur.

Baru-baru ini ada iklan kerudung “halal” Zoya yang menggemparkan dunia medsos. Mengapa MUI bisa membawa-bawa status halal sampai ke kerudung segala?

Karena ternyata, bagi MUI, kehalalan tidak hanya berkaitan dengan bentuk lahir sebuah benda (‘ainiyyah), tapi juga pada seluruh proses yang melahirkan benda tersebut.

Maka kerudung yang dipakai anak dan istri kita belum tentu halal. Kalau ada unsur haram atau najis di dalamnya, kerudung tersebut haram. Jelas penyematan halal pada kerudung adalah mengada ada dan tidak bisa diterima.

Kasus kerudung “halal” Zoya memicu berbagai spekulasi di tengah masyarakat. Salah satunya adalah dugaan MUI digunakan, dan mereka menikmatinya, oleh pemilik modal untuk menggiring preferensi dan gaya fashion masyarakat agar memilih merek tertentu sesuai dengan kriteria halal yang ditetapkannya.

Pada akhirnya kita bisa menyimpulkan bagaimana sertifikasi halal yang dimonopoli oleh MUI telah menimbulkan kerumitan tersendiri di tengah masyarakat. Sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan prinsip agama yang justru bertujuan mempermudah kehidupan umat manusia.

Silahkan nilai tulisan ini

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