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Menjadi Aktivis Islam Politik

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Mula-mula, aktivis harus kita maknai sebagai seseorang atau kelompok yang bertindak secara bersama untuk suatu perubahan: perumusan dan penetapan tujuan bersama. Sebagaimana Hannah Arendt membedakannya dengan manusia pekerja dan seniman, manusia tindakan (aktivis) adalah konsep manusia paling otentik di mana pola laku mereka hanya tertuju pada keutamaan hidup, yakni kebebasan.

Sebagai manusia otentik, aktivis tentu sangat diharapkan sumbangsih gagasan dan gerakannya. Mengingat jamaknya realitas bobrok yang hanya mampu memicu kemunduran berpikir dan berperilaku, aktivis mau tidak mau harus terlibat dalam berbagai upaya pengentasan masalah-masalah krusial. Salah satu masalah yang sampai hari ini menuai pertentangan adalah isu pertautan antara Islam dan Negara.

Mengapa harus aktivis politik? Lagi-lagi meminjam pernyataan Arendt, politik itu adalah kebebasan. Politik memungkinkan manusia untuk bertindak dan berpikir secara otonom.

Politik memicu hal-hal baru dengan menerobos standar atau mode perilaku, pemikiran, serta penilaian yang telah sedemikian rupa mengalami pembakuan. Itulah politik secara esensi.

Lebih lanjut, karena isu pertautan antara Islam dan Negara sebagai sentral pembahasan dalam tulisan ini, tentu tak keliru jika politik dijadikan sebagai alat bantu di mana aktivis politik Islam ditempatkan sebagai pelakunya. Dengan demikian, menjadi aktivis politik Islam mendapati relevansinya yang sangat pas dalam bahasan ini.

Islam Politik. Dewasa ini, perbincangan seputar Islam dan Negara memang tak henti menuai perdebatan. Sebagaimana disebutkan di awal, fokus tentang bagaimana pertautan keduanya menjadi bahan garapan yang terus dipoles sedemikian rupa.

Salah satu inti pertanyaan mendasar dalam persoalan tersebut adalah bagaimana pola pertautan antara Islam dan Negara dalam konteks Indonesia? Masih mungkinkah mempertahankan pola legal atau formal sebagaimana generasi muslim awal seperti Natsir menyerukannya?

Apakah pola yang lebih substansial sebagaimana Cak Nur, Gus Dur dan pemikir muslim generasi baru lainnya serukan? Tidakkah pola belakangan tersebut lebih mencerminkan nilai-nilai Islam? Perdebatan yang tak kunjung kelar inilah yang kemudian mengharuskan kita untuk bicara mengenai Islam Politik.

Ya, antagonisme dalam tubuh umat Islam, baik dalam aspek gagasan atau prakteknya, hanya mungkin diretas melalui jalur politik. Islam Politik niscaya harus kita pandang sebagai alat paling memungkinkan untuk menebar keharmonisan, paling tidak meredam antagonisme yang seharusnya bukan sebagai keutamaan. Jika tidak, disintegrasi di antara umat Islam sendiri hanya akan menjadi wabah penyakit yang mengerikan sekaligus mematikan.

Terinspirasi dari Leonard Binder, Islam akan mampu dipertahankan sebagai kekuatan politik hanya jika seseorang atau kelompok mau memainkan peran sebagai perantara kultural antara Islam dengan kebudayaan. Itulah mengapa Islam politik dalam hal ini dipandang relevan sebagai bahan diskusi bersama.

Bahtiar Effendi dalam Islam dan Negara (2009), memberi peta pemikiran politik yang terbilang relevan untuk terus dipertahankan, bila perlu diperluas. Dalam Bab “Tumbuhnya Intelektualisme Islam Baru” dia mengulas secara historis tentang Tiga Aliran Pemikiran, yakni Pembaharuan Teologis/Religius, Reformasi Politik/Birokrasi, dan Transformasi Sosial.

Meski upayanya tersebut dalam rangka memperbaiki keretakan hubungan antara Islam dan Negara, tetapi di sini saya menempatkannya sebagai gagasan pemikiran politik yang harus dirambah oleh masing-masing aktivis politik Islam.

Teori dan Praktik. Sejauh ini, agaknya gagasan Islam politik hanya menguat pada wilayah pembaruan pemikiran. Dimensi filosofis dari Islam melulu menjadi perhatian terbesar para aktivisnya. Sedang dua jalur lainnya, yakni reformasi politik dan transformasi sosial yang juga merupakan keutamaan dari politik (Islam) seolah redup, jika tidak dikesampingkan atau dihindari.

Bahwa menilai dimensi filosofis sebagai jantung persoalan utamanya, di mana yang lain hanya sebagai penyerta, terang akan mengurangi keotentikan dari Islam politik itu sendiri. Akibatnya, agenda Islam politik hanya akan sampai pada taraf kontemplatif semata.

Satu fakta memang bahwa aspek filosofis pemikiran Islam belum sampai pada taraf kemufakatan. Konsep sekularisasi (desakralisasi) Cak Nur, reaktualisasi Munawir maupun pribumisasi Islam-nya Gus Dur, belum sepenuhnya dapat diterima oleh kalangan luas.

Padahal, yang dilakukan oleh para aktivis Islam ini adalah apa yang Leonard Binder sebut sebagai “perantara kultural”. Mereka adalah orang-orang yang mau berpikir bukan untuk diri pribadi atau generasinya sendiri. Mereka berpikir untuk masa depan Indonesia yang lebih baik.

Secara filosofis, Islam dan Negara punya visi imperatif yang sama, yakni keadilan sosial. Prinsip-prinsipnya pun sangat mencerminkan kesesuaian di antara keduanya. Konsep monoteisme Islam adalah apa yang dikandung dalam sila pertama dalam ideologi negara.

Kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab, tidakkah itu prinsip keutamaan dalam Islam? Belum lagi persatuan (nasionalisme) serta penyelesaian masalah-masalah secara kemufakatan (demokrasi). Adalah kegagalan dalam berpikir jika sampai prinsip-prinsip yang dikandung oleh Islam dan Negara tersebut dianggap saling menegasi.

Terlepas darinya, pembaruan pemikiran harus tetap diupayakan. Landasan filosofis apapun tetap harus kita pandang sebagai akar yang mesti dituntaskan terlebih dahulu. Bahwa sikap reaksioner terhadap tindakan pembaharuan adalah ciri ketidakmampuan kita dalam berpikir. Bertindak tanpa pikiran berarti hendak menjadi manusia naif lagi banal (dangkal).

Anggaplah pemahaman secara prinsip di atas telah usai. Selanjutnya kita berpikir tentang bagaimana prinsip-prinsip tersebut harus kita realisasikan. Di sinilah reformasi politik membentuk dirinya sebagai rangkaian lanjutan dari tinjauan di atas. Bahwa reformasi politik terang adalah langkah utama lainnya yang harus dilakukan aktivis politik Islam. Masuk dalam sistem (birokrasi) berarti hendak menjadi jembatan perealisasian ide-ide politik.

Giddens pernah bertutur bahwa sistem kerja kapitalisme itu ibarat mobil tronton. Ia melaju cepat, bebas hambatan, tanpa ada celah untuk menghentikannya. Menghadangnya secara vis-a-vis, jangankan hendak memperlambat lajunya, tindakan konyol seperti itu hanya akan menambah semangatnya untuk terus melaju dan melaju. Tak ada cara lain kecuali mengejarnya, terlibat, dan berusaha untuk mengambil-alih kemudi.

Dalam konteks reformasi politik, cara-cara seperti itulah yang harus kita praktikkan. Ikut dalam birokrasi, terlibat dalam mekanisme pengambilan keputusan, paling tidak mempengaruhinya, adalah cara paling mutakhir yang sangat relevan dalam dunia modern dewasa ini.

Sayangnya, kebanyakan yang terlibat dalam birokrasi, mereka yang terlanjur menyeburkan diri ke dalam praktek politik, umumnya mengkhianati cita-cita politiknya sendiri.

Mereka yang awalnya diharapkan sebagai jembatan perantara untuk membawa serta kepentingan umum, pada akhirnya hanya mampu mewujud sebagai “pelacur-pelacur politik”. Maka tak heran ketika banyak pihak yang menilai politik sebagai sesuatu yang kotor. “Tai kucing!” kata Soe Hok Gie.

Meski demikian, inilah awal bagi kita untuk memulai. Kompromi politik harus kita maknai dalam kerangka fungsinya. Sejauh ia mendatangkan manfaat positif, semisal pengembangan demokratisasi atau keadilan sosial, tentu tak ada salahnya untuk kita berlaku demikian. Pragmatisme selamanya tidak bernuansa negatif.

Membangun jembatan berarti hendak mencapai suatu tujuan. Tujuan Islam politik, juga tujuan politik secara esensi, adalah kebebasan. Pada ranah inilah transformasi sosial harus digiatkan. Bahwa visi yang harus politik Islam tempuh tiada lain adalah kemaslahatan untuk sekalian umat.

Dan kemaslahatan hanya akan terwujud jika manusia-manusianya hidup dalam kondisi kebebasan. Berpikir secara otonom, kritis dan kreatif, serta bertindak tanpa tekanan. Itulah masyarakat yang islami.

Ya, transformasi sosial bertitik tekan pada pembangunan basis sosial. Hal ini tentu tak sah jika kita maknai sebagai pembangunan sebuah oposisi, apalagi atas Negara. Upaya ini semata-mata adalah upaya untuk membangun infrastruktur yang kuat, bahkan suatu upaya pembangunan basis politik yang sesungguhnya pada tingkat akar rumput.

Bukankah dengan keberadaan basis semacam ini adalah penopang lahir dan berkembangnya suatu sistem politik yang demokratis: berkemanusiaan dan berkeadilan? Saya kira, inilah cita-cita otentik dari Islam yang harus kita camkan! Selamat berpikir. Selamat menjadi aktivis Islam politik.

Silahkan nilai tulisan ini

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