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Ahok berkordinasi dengan Kapolda Metro Jaya dalam menangani Kampung Pulo (Foto: sindonews.com)
Ahok berkordinasi dengan Kapolda Metro Jaya dalam menangani Kampung Pulo (Foto: sindonews.com)

Rekening Ahok di Kampung Pulo

4.31/5 (13)

IslamLib – Ada satu inisiatif Ahok untuk warga gusuran Kampung Pulo yang tidak banyak mendapat perhatian publik, yaitu pembukaan rekening. Setiap kepala keluarga yang direlokasi ke rumah susun langsung dibukakan rekening atas nama warga tersebut dengan alamat Rusun yang mereka tempati. Ini adalah ide menarik, yang kalau diperluas bisa mendatangkan perubahan besar dalam banyak sektor.

Ahok sendiri memang tidak berjanji akan melakukan transfer dana pada nomor-nomor rekening itu. Namun inisiatif itu membuat pemerintah provinsi mengetahui secara pasti kepada siapa dana harus ditransfer sewaktu-waktu jika dibutuhkan. Nomor-nomor rekening itu adalah pintu. Pintu memang tidak bermakna apa-apa pada dirinya. Maknanya tergantung pada apa atau siapa yang memasukinya. Namun pintu membuat sesuatu menjadi mungkin datang dan masuk. Demikian pula nomor-nomor rekening baru bagi warga Kampung Pulo yang tergusur itu.

Sekedar catatan, negara-negara demokrasi baru seperti Indonesia memiliki kecenderungan menjadi negara kesejahteraan. Karakter utama negara-negara itu adalah gemar mengadopsi kebijakan transfer dana (cash transfer) bagi penduduk yang berada di bawah garis kemiskinan.

Di Indonesia, kebijakan transfer dana ini mewujud dalam bentuk bantuan langsung tunai (BLT) dan bantuan langsung sementara masyarakat (BLSM). Seringkali karakter kebijakan semacam ini terjadi secara natural akibat perlombaan partai atau politikus untuk memberi janji pelayanan maksimal bagi warga pemilih. Maka adanya daftar nomor rekening dari warga gusuran, akan memudahkan pemerintah mengimplementasikan kebijakan sosialnya.

Selain kemungkinan besar transfer dana dari negara, pembukaan rekening itu juga adalah undangan bagi dana bantuan pihak non-negara. Lembaga-lembaga donor internasional, misalnya, sangat berkepentingan mengetahui sasaran langsung dari bantuan luar negeri mereka.

Jangan lupa bahwa negara-negara maju yang tergabung dalam Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) memiliki target menyisihkan 0,7 persen pendapatan nasional mereka untuk membantu negara-negara miskin. Di samping masih banyak negara OECD yang tidak mencapai target itu, masalah yang paling besar mereka adalah pada penyaluran bantuan.

William Easterly, misalnya, menemukan bahwa masalah terbesar dari penyaluran bantuan itu adalah karena pemerintah negara penerima bantuan tidak terpercaya atau korup. Sialnya, negara-negara yang paling miskin adalah juga negara-negara yang paling korup. Menyalurkan dana ke negara miskin sama artinya menyalurkan dana ke pemerintah yang korup. Adanya daftar nomor rekening bagi orang miskin mungkin bisa mengurangi masalah ini.

Bantuan dari pihak non-negara dalam negeri seperti perusahaan dengan dana CSRnya atau individu juga bisa lebih efektif dengan adanya nomor rekening bagi warga miskin ini. Pada intinya, inisitif membuka rekening bagi warga Kampung Pulo yang direlokasi, juga warga miskin lain, adalah gagasan brillian untuk mendekatkan donor dengan sasaran bantuan. Ini adalah kebijakan publik berbiaya murah, tapi dengan dampak yang bisa sangat besar.

Inisiatif ini bisa secara efektif memangkas birokrasi penyaluran bantuan. Harus diakui bahwa seringkali persoalan bantuan bukan pada bagaimana mengumpulkannya, tapi pada implementasi penyalurannya. Akuntabilitas lembaga penyalur bantuan sosial sering bermasalah.

Ini, misalnya, terjadi pada kasus korupsi bantuan sosial di Sumatera Utara yang menyeret gubernurnya sebagai tersangka penyuapan. Kalaupun dana itu tidak dikorup oleh lembaga penyalur, seringkali dana dibelokkan ke sasaran yang menguntungkan bagi penyalur dan patronnya, dalam kasus Sumut, untuk mendulang suara dalam pemilihan kepala daerah.

Pada ranah yang lebih luas, membukakan rekening bagi warga miskin adalah suatu kebijakan untuk mendorong semua pihak di luar negara untuk terlibat secara nyata dalam mengatasi problem sosial. Pada dasarnya, meminjam kalimat Amartya Sen, peraih Nobel ekonomi, kemiskinan bukan hanya persoalan bagi warga miskin, tapi juga bagi warga kaya.

Ada begitu banyak studi yang menemukan korelasi antara kemiskinan dan tingkat kriminalitas. Jurang ekonomi warga miskin dan kaya (inequality) juga kuat ditengarai berkontribusi besar memperburuk kualitas demokrasi. Ketimpangan ekonomi mengundang praktik politik oligarki, politik uang dan vote buying dalam Pemilu.

Selain itu, inequality akibat kemiskinan juga menjadi pemicu munculnya agenda-agenda populisme dalam kampanye politik untuk menyasar suara kelompok masyarakat kelas bawah. Sementara politik populisme menghambat munculnya agenda-agenda kebijakan yang rasional. Akibat yang lebih jauh populisme tentu saja adalah munculnya rezim diktator yang bersuara atas nama rakyat.

Kesimpulannya, disadari atau tidak, inisiatif rezim Ahok untuk membuka rekening bagi warga Kampung Pulo itu menjadi pintu masuk bagi aktor-aktor non-negara untuk terlibat aktif dan efektif membantu penyelesaian persoalan warga yang baru direlokasi itu.

Jika kebijakan ini diterapkan secara luas kepada seluruh penduduk miskin, maka akan semakin banyak muncul aktor-aktor lain yang ikut berkontribusi. Negara, pada akhirnya, bukan aktor tunggal dan dominan. Penyimpangan dan pendomplengan agenda politik dalam kebijakan sosial kemungkinan besar bisa diminimalisir.

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