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LGBT, Agama, Teks Alkitab, dan Temuan Sains Modern

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* Versi jauh lebih pendek tulisan ini dengan judul berbeda dipasang di blog saya, The Freethinker Blog, pertama kali 1 Januari 2012. Update mutakhir 24 Februari 2016.  

Notes

/1/ Lihat JAMA: Gay Is Okay With APA (American Psychiatric Association); tersedia online di http://www.soulforce.org/article/642.

/2/ Lihat Suzanne Trimel (Direktur Komunikasi IGLHRC), “UN Human Rights Council Votes to Support LGBT Rights”, OutRight Action International, pada https://www.outrightinternational.org/content/un-human-rights-council-votes-support-lgbt-rights. Lihat juga kertas kerja HRC PBB tanggal 24 September 2014 (format PDF) pada https://www.outrightinternational.org/sites/default/files/HRC-27-L27-rev1.pdf.

/3/ Halaman 30. “Case No. S147999 in the Supreme Court of the State of California, In re Marriage Cases Judicial Council Coordination Proceeding No. 4365(…) – APA California Amicus Brief― As Filed”, pada http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/courts/supreme/highprofile/documents/Amer_Psychological_Assn_Amicus_Curiae_Brief.pdf .

/4/ Lihat berita Heru Margianto, “Homoseksual Bukan Penyimpangan Seksual”, Kompas.com, 11 November 2008, pada http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2008/11/11/13081144/Homoseksual.Bukan.Penyimpangan.Seksual.

/5/ Lihat Yunanto Wiji Utomo, “Nyatakan LGBT Gangguan Jiwa, dr. Fidiansyah Dituding Menutupi Kebenaran”, Kompas.com, 19 Februari 2016, pada http://sains.kompas.com/read/2016/02/19/16141561/Nyatakan.LGBT.Gangguan.Jiwa.dr.Fidiansyah.Dituding.Menutupi.Kebenaran.

/6/ Sarlito Wirawan Sarwono, “LGBT Gaul”, Gatra News, No. 14, tahun XXII, 5 Februari 2016, pada http://www.gatra.com/kolom-dan-wawancara/185467-lgbt-gaul.

/7/ Lihat reportase Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court rules gay couples nationwide have a right to marry”, The Washington Post, 26 June 2015, pada http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/gay-marriage-and-other-major-rulings-at-the-supreme-court/2015/06/25/ef75a120-1b6d-11e5-bd7f-4611a60dd8e5_story.html.

/8/ Lihat Pew Research Center, “Section 2: Knowing Gays and Lesbians, Religious Conflicts, Beliefs about Homosexuality. Gay or Lesbian Friends and Support for Same-Sex Marriage ”, Pew Research Center, 8 June 2015, pada http://www.people-press.org/2015/06/08/section-2-knowing-gays-and-lesbians-religious-conflicts-beliefs-about-homosexuality/.

/9/ Lihat berita “Sikap PGI terhadap Pernikahan Sesama Jenis”, Jawaban.com, 1 Juli 2015, pada http://www.jawaban.com/read/article/id/2015/07/01/90/150701115541/Sikap-PGI-Terhadap-Pernikahan-Sesama-Jenis.

/10/ Lihat berita “PGI: Gereja Tak Restui Pernikahan Sejenis”, Republika Online, 10 Juli 2015, pada http://www.republika.co.id/berita/nasional/umum/15/07/10/nr9qur-pgi-gereja-tak-restui-pernikahan-sejenis.

/11/ Lihat reportase “Gereja Katolik Tidak Mengakui Perkawinan Sejenis”, Suara Indonesia Baru, 5 Juli 2015, pada http://hariansib.co/mobile/?open=content&id=66400.

/12/ Untuk makalah ilmiah penemuan ini, lihat M. Azim Surani, Naoko Irie, Leehee Weinberger, et al., “SOX17 Is a Critical Specifier of Human Primordial Germ Cell Fate, Cell, Vol. 160, Issues 1-2, 15 January 2015, hlm. 253-268, pada http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674%2814%2901583-9; lihat reportase populer BBC Crew, “Two-dad babies could soon be a reality: Scientists have made human egg and sperm cells using skin from adults of the same sex”, Science Alert, 25 February 2015, pada http://www.sciencealert.com/two-dad-babies-could-soon-be-a-reality.

/13/ John L. Allen, Jr., “Pope on Homosexual: ‘Who Am I to Judge?’”, National Catholic Reporter, 29 July 2013, pada http://ncronline.org/blogs/ncr-today/pope-homosexuals-who-am-i-judge.

/14/ Lihat reportase Jenn Selby, “Pope Francis Named ‘Person of the Year’ by Leading Gay Rights Magazine”, The Independent, 17 December 2013, pada http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/news/pope-francis-named-person-of-the-year-by-leading-gay-rights-magazine-9009729.html.

/15/ Lihat video berita “Why Gay Marriage Poses A ‘Difficult’ Problem for Pope Francis”, The Huffington Post, 1 June 2015, pada http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/01/pope-francis-gay-marriage_n_7484106.html.

/16/ Lihat Joshua J. McElwee, “Francis Strongly Criticizes Gender Theory, Comparing It to Nuclear Weapons”, National Catholic Reporter, 13 February 2015, pada http://ncronline.org/news/vatican/francis-strongly-criticizes-gender-theory-comparing-nuclear-arms. Wawancara dengan Paus Fransiskus tersebut dimuat dalam buku Andrea Tornielli dan Giacomo Galeazzi, This Economy Kills: Pope Francis on Capitalism and Social Justice (Liturgical Press, 2015).

/17/ German Lopez, “Why Pope Francis’s meeting with Kim Davis isn’t surprising?, Vox Policy and Politics, 30 September 2015, pada http://www.vox.com/2015/9/30/9423093/pope-francis-kim-davis. Lihat juga berita tentang pertemuan Paus Fransiskus dan Kim Davis, “Pope Francis Met Privately with Kim Davis and Encouraged Her to ‘Stay Strong’”, Liberty Council, 29 September 2015, pada https://www.lc.org/newsroom/details/pope-francis-met-privately-with-kim-davis-and-encouraged-her-to-stay-strong-1.

/18/ AFP, “Dalai Lama supports gay marriage”, The Telegraph, 07 March 2014, pada http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/tibet/10682492/Dalai-Lama-supports-gay-marriage.html.

/19/ Reza Aslan dan Hasan Minhaj, “An Open Letter to American Muslims on Same-Sex Marriage”, Religion Dispatches, 7 July 2015, pada http://religiondispatches.org/an-open-letter-to-american-muslims-on-same-sex-marriage/.

/20/ Lihat “The Bible and Homosexuality: Detailed Introduction, Part 1” di http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_bibi.htm; juga “The Bible and Homosexuality: Detailed Introduction, Part 2” di  http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_bibi1.htm.

/21/ Lihat “Context and analysis of Leviticus 18:22” di http://www.religioustolerance./hom_bibh4.htm; Paul Turner, “Seeds of Hope: ‘But Leviticus Says’”, Whosoever, di http://www.whosoever.org/seeds/letter84.shtml; dan juga Anon, “What does Leviticus 18:22 really say?”, Pamphlet, National Gay Pentacostal Alliance (NGPA), P.O. Box 20428, Ferndale, MI.

/22/ Lihat “Leviticus 20:13” di http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_bibh3.htm.

/23/ Untuk informasi tentang konteks religius kultural surat Roma, khususnya bagian-bagiannya yang mengacu ke perilaku seksual, lihat R. S. Truluck, “The six Bible passages used to condemn homosexuals”, di http://www.truluck.com/html/; dan artikel “Free to be gay: A brief look at the Bible and homosexuality”, Universal Fellowship of Metropolitant Community Churches”, di http://www.ualberta.ca/~cbidwell/UFMCC/.

/24/ Lihat “Romans 1:26-27. Introduction” pada http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_bibc3.htm.

/25/ Lihat artikel “Homosexuality in the Christian Scriptures, the ‘clobber passages’, 1 Timothy 1:9-10” di http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_bibc7.htm.

/26/ Lihat tafsiran 1 Korintus 6:9-10 dalam http://www.relgioustolerance.org/hom_bibc1.htm.

/27/ Paul Thomas Cahill, “An Investigation into the Bible and homosexuality” di http://www.christianlesbians.com/.

/28/ Lihat artikel “Meanings of the Greek word ‘arsenokoitai’ (1 Corinthians 6 and 1 Timothy 1)” di http://www.religioustolerance.org/homarsen.htm.

/29/ Lihat artikel “How to be true to the Bible and say ‘Yes’ to same-sex unions”, di http://members.aol.com/DrSwiney/bennett.html; lihat juga “Celebrating diversity: texts recently applied to homosexuality”, di http://members.tripod.com/~uniting/resource/bible.html.

/30/ Paul Thomas Cahill, “An Investigation into the Bible and homosexuality” di http://www.christianlesbians.com/; lihat juga Justin Cannon, “The Bible, Christianity and Homosexuality”, di http://www.truthsetsfree.net/study.html.

/31/ Selain sumber-sumber yang sudah dirujuk di atas, kajian atas kata arsenokoitēs juga dapat dilihat pada “Homosexuality in the Christian Scriptures, the ‘clobber passages’, 1 Timothy 1:9-10” di http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_bibc7.htm.

/32/ Untuk berbagai kemungkinan arti kata pornea, lihat kata “fornication” dalam The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, edisi keempat, di http://www.dictionary.com/; dan Strong’s Concordance di http://www.freedom2201. tripod.com/.

/33/ Dalam The New Oxford Annotated Bible Revised Standard Version (editor: Herbert G. May & Bruce M. Metzger) (New York: Oxford University Press, 1962, 1973), frasa sarkos heteras pada Yudas 1:7 diterjemahkan sebagai “unnatural lust” (begitu juga NRSV edisi 1989). Harper Collin’s New Revised Standard Version of the Bible memberi komentar pada catatan Yudas 1:7 demikian, “Orang-orang Sodom mencoba berhubungan seks dengan para malaikat”.

/34/ Untuk tafsiran ini, lihat komentar atas Yudas 1:7 pada http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_bibc2.htm.

/35/ Tentang homoseksualitas pada hewan, dua links ini menyediakan banyak informasi berharga: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homosexual_behavior_in_animals dan

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_animals_displaying_homosexual_behavior.

/36/ Bruce Bagemihl, Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999).

/37/ Lihat J.T. Eberhard, “Ben Carson isn’t sure if the Constitution has authority over the Bible”, Patheos, 4 August 2015, pada http://www.patheos.com/blogs/wwjtd/2015/08/ben-carson-isnt-sure-if-the-constitution-has-authority-over-the-bible/. Lihat juga pada http://www.christianpost.com/news/ben-carson-asked-gotcha-question-does-the-bible-have-authority-over-the-constitution-142209/.

/38/ Lihat Pew Research Center, “Section 2: Knowing Gays and Lesbians, Religious Conflicts, Beliefs about Homosexuality. Mixed Views on Why People Are gay or Lesbian”, Pew Research Center, 8 June 2015, pada http://www.people-press.org/2015/06/08/section-2-knowing-gays-and-lesbians-religious-conflicts-beliefs-about-homosexuality/.

/39/ Lihat reportase Jeffrey Kluger, “No Ben Carson, Homosexuality Is Not a Choice”, Time, 6 March 2015, pada http://time.com/3733480/ben-carson-gay-choice-science/.

/40/ Simon LeVay, “A Difference in Hypothalamic Structure between Homosexual and Heterosexual Men”, Science, Vol. 253, No. 5023, 30 August 1991, hlm. 1034-1037, pada http://www.sciencemag.org/content/253/5023/1034.abstract.

/41/ Sumber https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/sexual-brain.

/42/ Simon LeVay, The Sexual Brain (Cambridge/London, MA/UK: MIT Press1993,1994), hlm. xi-xii.

/43/ Simon LeVay, The Sexual Brain, hlm. xiii-xiv.

/44/ Simon LeVay, The Sexual Brain, hlm. 120-121.

/45/ Simon LeVay, The Sexual Brain, hlm. 122.

/46/ Simon LeVay, The Sexual Brain, hlm. xiv.

/47/ Simon LeVay, The Sexual Brain, hlm.129.

/48/ Simon LeVay, The Sexual Brain, hlm. xii.

/49/ Simon LeVay, The Sexual Brain, hlm. 108-109.

/50/ Simon LeVay, The Sexual Brain, hlm. 137.

/51/ Simon LeVay, The Sexual Brain, hlm. 129.

/52/ Simon LeVay, Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2011), hlm. xiv-xv.

/53/ Laura S. Allen dan Roger A. Gorski, “Sexual Orientation and the Size of the Anterior Commissure in the Human Brain”, The Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, Vol. 89, August 1992, hlm. 7199-7202, pada https://timedotcom.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/7199.full.pdf.

/54/ Lihat kolom Kelly Servick, “Study of gay brothers may confirm X chromosome link to homosexuality”, Science, 17 November 2014, pada http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2014/11/study-gay-brothers-may-confirm-x-chromosome-link-homosexuality. Untuk makalah ilmiah kajian ini, lihat J.M. Bailey, Alan R. Sanders, E.R. Martin, et al., “Genome-Wide Scan Demonstrates Significant Linkage for Male Sexual Orientation”, Psychological Medicine, Vol. 45, Issue 07, May 2015, hlm. 1379-1388, pada http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9625997&fileId=S0033291714002451.  

/55/ Lihat bab 10 buku LeVay, Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2011).

/56/ Lihat Lalumière ML, Blanchard R, Zucker KJ, “Sexual orientation and handedness in men and women: A meta-analysis”, NCBI. Psychological Bulletin, July 2000, No. 126 (4), hlm. 575-592, pada http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10900997.

/57/ Simon LeVay, The Sexual Brain, hlm. 118.

/58/ Lihat Rahman Q, Clarke K, Morera T, “Hair whorl direction and sexual orientation in human males”, NCBI. Behavioral Neuroscience, April 2009, No. 123 (2), hlm. 252-258, pada http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19331448.

/59/  Kelly Servick, “Study of gay brothers may confirm X chromosome link to homosexuality”, Science, 17 November 2014, pada http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2014/11/study-gay-brothers-may-confirm-x-chromosome-link-homosexuality.

/60/ Lihat Nicolas DiDomizio, “A Surprising Number of Straight Men Are Having Sex With Other Men, Says The CDC”, Connections.Mic, 8 January 2016, pada http://mic.com/articles/132129/a-surprising-number-of-straight-men-are-having-sex-with-other-men-says-the-cdc#.iZmKZqHq8.

/61/ Lihat Sara Reardon, “Epigenetic ‘tags’ linked to homosexuality in men: Twin study reveals five DNA markers that are associated with sexual orientation”, Nature, 8 October 2015, updated 12 October 2015, pada http://www.nature.com/news/epigenetic-tags-linked-to-homosexuality-in-men-1.18530.

/62/ Lihat artikel “What Research shows: NARTH’s Response to the APA Claims on Homosexuality” dalam Journal of Human Sexuality 1 (2009) 1-128; ringkasan artikel ini tersedia online di http://www.narth.com/docs/journalsummary.html.

/63/ Lihat artikel rujukan “The Lies and Dangers of Efforts to Change Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity”, Human Rights Campaign, pada http://www.hrc.org/resources/the-lies-and-dangers-of-reparative-therapy.

/64/ Frans Magnis-Suseno, “Perkawinan Sejenis Tak Berdasar”, Kompas.com, 23 Februari 2016, pada http://print.kompas.com/baca/2016/02/23/Perkawinan-Sejenis-Tak-Berdasar.

/65/ Lihat Stefanus Yugo, “Luhut: LGBT Punya Hak, Harus Dilindungi”, RimaNews, 12 Februari 2016, pada http://nasional.rimanews.com/keamanan/read/20160212/261397/Luhut-LGBT-Punya-Hak-Harus-Dilindungi.

/66/ Simon LeVay, Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation, hlm. xii.

/67/ Lihat Colin Fernandez, “The DNA test ‘that reveals if you’re gay’: Genetic code clue is 70 percent accurate, claim scientists”, Mailonline, 8 Oktober 2015, pada http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3265248/Homosexuality-imprinted-genes-Scientists-predict-gay-70-cent-accuracy.html.

/68/ Lihat Hendri F. Isnaeni, “Viva Vivian!”, Historia, pada http://historia.id/budaya/viva-vivian.

/69/ Paul Henry Gebhard, “Human Sexual Behaviour”, Encyclopaedia Britannica, pada http://www.britannica.com/topic/human-sexual-behaviour/Legal-regulation.

/70/ LGBTIQ = Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex, Queer. Ini harus ditambah OS hetero, sehingga menjadi HLGBTIQ.

/71/ Allan Bérubé, Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War II (edisi kedua; Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010; edisi pertama 1990).

/72/ Robert Aldrich dan Garry Wotherspoon, Who’s Who in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity to World War II (2 jilid) (London/New York: Routledge, cetakan pertama 2001).

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